Understanding Advaita Vedanta

adhyAropa apavAda (अध्यारोप अपवाद) - A Consistent Traditional Teaching

Part I, Page 3 - adhyAropa apavAda (अध्यारोप अपवाद) - A Consistent Traditional Teaching


This is Page 3/10 of Part I.

This part deals with unique Traditional way of teaching as passed on to and by by Shri Gaudapadacharya and Adi Shanakracharya ji. According to Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati, it is the only consistent method of teaching.

Table Of Contents

[Upadated on 4th July 2016] Added 27 adhyAropa apavAda in chatuHslokI bhAgavat, a part of Srimad BhAgavatam

adhyAropa apavAda (अध्यारोप अपवाद)- Only Consistent Traditional Teaching as taught by Adi Shankara BhagavadpAda

adhyAropa apavAda (अध्यारोपापवाद) is a unique traditional method of teaching rediscovered by Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. According to Swamiji, this method is the only consistent method of teaching of vedAnta.

According to this method, first super imposition on Self (Atman / Brahman) is mentioned and later on, this superimposition is negated in same shruti.

adhyAropa apavAda can be defined as, false Superimposition (adhyAropa, अध्यारोप) Followed by Retraction (apavAda, अपवाद).

This doctrine actually leads to ajAta vAda. in ajAta vAda, there is no creation, no mAyA, no jagat, no Ishvara. Only Atma tatva, Brahma tatva or pure consciousness. Upanishads and Gita say that 'in the beginning there was no being and no non being', as in Gita 13.13

This in itself is very deep, critical study and is beyond the scope of this work. However, we will study it in brief.

To sum up in brief.

Attribute of witness is added and then it is negated by saying that it cannot be reached through mind, eyes, speech, etc.

The concept of witness is introduced since the objective is to indicate that 'I' am not any object of observation. But later on, even the attribute of being a witness is removed, as to see something, there has to be another (an object that can be seen and observer).

Hence Brahman cannot be a witness also. So the false attribute of being a witness is also negated by saying that Brahman is beyond 5 senses and mind.

General trend in upanishads is found to be

  • There was only one brahman

  • Then brahman decided to be many i.e. created universe and jIva-s.

  • Though undivided brahman became many (This indicates that the creation is not completely real, but appears to be real under the influence of mAyA

  • Different forms of brahman like rAma, kruShNa, Siva, etc are praised with attributes like creator, destroyer, all powerful, compassionate, etc

  • Theory of being witness to all that is non-self is given

  • Being a witness will help separate 'I' from body, mind, intellect, and all that is non self

  • Unity of observer and object of observer is experienced

  • After the object of observation drops, being witness also drops.

  • Finally what remains is nothing but pure consciousness.

To further simplify, we can say that

Brahman was one in the beginning

Brahman became many --> attributes were added

Being a witness --> beginning of separation

Object of observation melts, what remains is non-dual brahman

Brahman can be described only in a negative way

It is not possible to describe Brahman, hence it cannot be taught positively. No attribute can be given to describe it. It shows that all attributes are false and they are negated. Hence the only method to explain Brahman is negative approach or false superimposition and retraction or negation of false super imposition.

adhyAropa apavAda in Bhagavad Gita

Note: In some versions, first verse of chapter 13 is not found, Adi Shankara did not comment on it, while Ramanuja commented.

In Shankara Bhasya, total verses in chapter 13 are 34, while that in Ramanuja Bhasya are 35. If we accept 35 verses in chapter 13, then total number of verses in Gita will be 701.

Last verse of Chapter 13 says

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा।

भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्।।13.34।।

13.34 They who, by the eye of knowledge, perceive the distinction between the field and its knower and also the liberation from the Nature of being, go to the Supreme.

This verse mentions two things

  1. Perceive the distinction between the field and its knower

  2. Liberation from the Nature of being

This means that first Self or Atman is separated from Non-Self by being a witness. But what is to be separated? that which we identify as 'I' or Self. To separate Self from Non-Self, we must define what is Self. In other words attributes are given to Self or Atman. The attributes are 'knower' or 'witness' or 'observer' or 'SAkSi' or 'kshetraGYa'. Since one is a witness, it means that there is an object that one is witness.

So here there are two things.

  1. 'Witness' or 'Observer' called as kshetraGYa' and

  2. The 'object of observation'.

This means there is duality. To enter into non-dual state one has to even drop the attributes like 'knower' or 'witness'. This means that only thing left is observer. But the terms observer is relative as it is dependent upon 'object of observation' i.e. one can be called as observer only if one is observing something. After non-Self is separated from Self, the attributes of 'witness' or 'knower' are also removed.

This can be observed in Gita 13.1 and 13.13

Atman as Witness 'Kshetragya'

श्री भगवानुवाच

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।

एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः।।13.1।।

13.1 The Blessed Lord said - O son of Kunti, this body is referred to as the 'field' or 'kshetra'. Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the 'knower of the field' or 'kshetraGYa'.

Attribute of being a witness is removed

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वाऽमृतमश्नुते।

अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते।।13.13।।

13.13 I shall speak of that which is to be known, by realizing which one attains Immortality. The supreme Brahman is without any beginning. That is called neither being nor non-being.

Later verses are

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्।

सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति।।13.14।।

13.14 That (Knowable), which has hands and feet everwhere, which has eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, which has ears everywhere, exists in creatures by pervading them all.

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम्।

असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च।।13.15।।

13.15 Shining through the functions of all the organs, (yet) devoid of all the organs; unattached, and verily the supporter of all; without quality, and the perceiver of qualities;

Points to be observed --> neither being nor non-being. Then attributes of omnipresence -- then retraction of these qualities as devoid of all organs, without quality.

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च।

सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत्।।13.16।।

13.16 Existing outside and inside all beings; moving as well as non-moving, It is incomprehensible due to subtleness. So also, It is far away, and yet near.


13.16 Outside and within (all) beings the unmoving and also the moving; because of Its subtlety, unknowable; and near and far away is That.

This method is found in other verses of Gita. Lets analyze a few verses.

AdhyAropa ApavAda in Chapter 9

Please refer to shankara bhasya in 'Gita Super Site'. Select both hindi commentary (Sri Harikrishandas Goenka ) and english commentary (Swami Gambhirananda)

AdhyAropa (superimposition)

In chapter 9, Bhagavan says

मया ततमिदं सर्वं जगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना।

मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि न चाहं तेष्ववस्थितः।।9.4।।

mayā tatamidaṅ sarvaṅ jagadavyaktamūrtinā.

matsthāni sarvabhūtāni na cāhaṅ tēṣvavasthitaḥ..9.4..

9.4 All this world is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest aspect (nirgina Brahman); all beings exist in Me, but I do not dwell in them.

ApavAda (retraction or negation)

न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम्।

भूतभृन्न च भूतस्थो ममात्मा भूतभावनः।।9.5।।

na ca matsthāni bhūtāni paśya mē yōgamaiśvaram.

bhūtabhṛnna ca bhūtasthō mamātmā bhūtabhāvanaḥ..9.5..

9.5 Nor do beings exist in Me (in reality); behold My divine Yoga, supporting all beings, but not dwelling in them, is My Self, the efficient cause of beings.

another e.g. to make things easy.

AdhyAropa in Chapter 3, ApavAda in Chapter 4


न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत्।

कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः।।3.5।।

3.5 Because, no one ever remains even for a moment without doing work. For all are made to work under compulsion by the gunas born of Nature.


यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन।

ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात्कुरुते तथा।।4.37।।

4.37 Just as burning fire turns fuel to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge turn all Karma to ashes.

Is this not contradictory? So first something is said, then it is retracted or negated.

To a matured sadhaka, shastras say that all karmas are destroyed. All means prArabhdha, AgAmi and sanchit. So even prArabhdha is destroyed. Gita also says that one cannot be free from any karma and so one should practice nitya karmas.

Upadeshas are said from adhikAra bheda.

Now you got he point as why in Sv. Up. even though the size of jiva is given, it says, it has to be experienced as infinite.

How was this traditional Method discovered?

Swamiji observed that this method of teaching was adopted by Shankara BhagavadpAda from his Gita BhaSya in 13.13. (13.14 in other versions of Gita)

We will try to understand this method in detail.

Since Adi Shankara also discusses verse 13.13, lets see what this verse says. Important points are colour coded so that they can be easily located.

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वाऽमृतमश्नुते।

अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते।।13.13।।

13.13 I shall speak of that which is to be known, by realizing which one attains Immortality. The supreme Brahman is without any beginning. That is called neither being nor non-being.

Lets analyze verse on 13.14 in detail

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्।

सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति।।13.14।।

13.14 That (Knowable), which has hands and feet everywhere, which has eyes, heads and mouths everywhere, which has ears everywhere, exists in creatures by pervading them all.

Shankara Bhasya Sanskrit

-- सर्वतःपाणिपादं सर्वतः पाणयः पादाश्च अस्य इति सर्वतःपाणिपादं तत् ज्ञेयम्। सर्वप्राणिकरणोपाधिभिः क्षेत्रज्ञस्य अस्तित्वं विभाव्यते। क्षेत्रज्ञश्च क्षेत्रोपाधितः उच्यते। क्षेत्रं च पाणिपादादिभिः अनेकधा भिन्नम्। क्षेत्रोपाधिभेदकृतं विशेषजातं मिथ्यैव क्षेत्रज्ञस्य, इति तदपनयनेन ज्ञेयत्वमुक्तम् 'न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते' इति। उपाधिकृतं मिथ्यारूपमपि अस्तित्वाधिगमाय ज्ञेयधर्मवत् परिकल्प्य उच्यते 'सर्वतःपाणिपादम्' इत्यादि। तथा हि संप्रदायविदां वचनम् -- 'अध्यारोपापवादाभ्यां निष्प्रपञ्चं प्रपञ्च्यते' इति। सर्वत्र सर्वदेहावयवत्वेन गम्यमानाः पाणिपादादयः ज्ञेयशक्तिसद्भावनिमित्तस्वकार्याः इति ज्ञेयसद्भावे लिङ्गानि 'ज्ञेयस्य' इति उपचारतः उच्यन्ते। तथा व्याख्येयम् अन्यत्। सर्वतःपाणिपादं तत् ज्ञेयम्। सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखं सर्वतः अक्षीणि शिरांसि मुखानि च यस्य तत् सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्; सर्वतःश्रुतिमत् श्रुतिः श्रवणेन्द्रियम्, तत् यस्य तत् श्रुतिमत्, लोके प्राणिनिकाये, सर्वम् आवृत्य संव्याप्य तिष्ठति स्थितिं लभते।।उपाधिभूतपाणिपादादीन्द्रियाध्यारोपणात् ज्ञेयस्य तद्वत्ताशङ्का मा भूत् इत्येवमर्थः श्लोकारम्भः -- ।।13.13।।

Lets have the Hindi Translation of Shankara Bhasya by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka

वह 'ज्ञेय' सत् शब्दद्वारा होनेवाली प्रतीतिका विषय नहीं है, इससे उसके न होनेकी आशङ्का होनेपर उस आशङ्काकी निवृत्तिके लिये, समस्त प्राणियोंकी इन्द्रियादि उपाधियोंद्वारा उस ज्ञेयके अस्तित्वका प्रतिपादन करते हुए कहते हैं -- वह ज्ञेय सब ओर हाथ-पैरवाला है अर्थात् उसके हाथ-पैर सर्वत्र फैले हुए हैं। सब प्राणियोंकी इन्द्रियरूप उपाधियोंद्वारा क्षेत्रज्ञका अस्तित्व प्रकट होता है। क्षेत्ररूप उपाधिके कारण ही वह ज्ञेय क्षेत्रज्ञ कहा जाता है। क्षेत्ररूप उपाधि हाथ, पैर आदि भेदसे अनेक प्रकार विभक्त है। वास्तवमें, क्षेत्रकी उपाधियोंके भेदसे किये हुए समस्त भेद क्षेत्रज्ञमें मिथ्या ही हैं, अतः उनको हटाकर ज्ञेयका स्वरूप 'वह न सत् कहा जा सकता है और न असत् ही कहा जा सकता है' ऐसे बतलाया गया है। तथा ज्ञेयका अस्तित्व समझानेके लिये उपाधिकृत मिथ्यारूपको भी उसके धर्मकी भाँति कल्पना करके उसको 'सब ओरसे हाथ-पैरवाला' है, इत्यादि प्रकारसे बतलाया जाता है। सम्प्रदाय-परम्पराको जाननेवालोंका भी यही कहना है कि 'अध्यारोप और अपवादद्वारा प्रपञ्चरहित परमात्माकी व्याख्या की जाती है। ' सर्वत्र अर्थात् सब शरीरोंके अंगरूपसे स्थित हाथ, पैर आदि इन्द्रियाँ, ज्ञेय शक्तिकी सत्तासे ही स्वकार्यमें समर्थ हो रही हैं, अतः ये सब ज्ञेयकी सत्ताके चिह्न होनेके कारण उपचारसे ज्ञेयके ( धर्म ) कहे जाते हैं। ऐसे ही और सबकी भी व्याख्या कर लेनी चाहिये। वह ज्ञेय सब ओर हाथ-पैरवाला है, तथा सब ओर नेत्र, शिर और मुखवाला है -- जिसके आँख, शिर और मुख सर्वत्र हों, वह सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुख कहलाता है तथा वह सब ओर कानवाला है -- जिसके श्रुति अर्थात् श्रवणेन्द्रिय हो वह श्रुतिमत् ( कानवाला ) कहा जाता है। इस लोकमें -- समस्त प्राणिसमुदायमें वह सबको व्याप्त करके स्थित है ।।13.13।।

Lets see simplified English Translation by Swami Gambhirananda

13.13 That-the Knowable which has hands and feet everywhere.The existence of the Knower of the field is revealed through the adjuncts in the form of the organs of all creatures. And the Knower of the field is spoken of as such because of the limiting adjuncts of the field. The field, too, is diversely differentiated as hands, feet, etc. All diversity in the Knower of the field, caused by the differences in the adjunct-the field, is certainly unreal. Hence, by denying it, the nature of the Knowable has been stated, in, 'That is called neither being nor non-being.' Although the unreal form is caused by the limiting adjuncts, still, for the comprehension of Its existence it is said, '(It) has hands and feet everywhere, etc., by assuming this as a quality of the Knowable. Thus, as is well known, there is saying of the people versed in tradition, 'The Transcendental is described with the help of superimposition and its refutation'. Everywhere the hands, feet, etc., which are perceived as limbs of all bodies, perform, their duties due to the presence of the power of the Knowable (Brahman). Thus the grounds for the inference of the existence of the Knowable are metaphorically spoken of as belonging to the Knowable. The others have to be explained similarly. That Knowable has hands and feet everywhere. That which has eyes, heads, and mouths everywhere is sarvatoksi-siro-mukham. That which has ears every-where is sarvatah-srutimat: sruti means the organs of hearing; that which has it is sruti-mat. Tisthati, It exists, remains established; loke, in the multititude of creatures; avrtya, by pervading; sarvam, them all. With this purpose is view, that as a result of the superimposition of the organs like hands, feet, etc., which are adjuncts, there may not be the misconception that the Knowable is possessed of them (adjuncts), the (next) verse is begun:

Important Points

1. Knowers of the Tradition say --> Adi Shankara did not say this is his own theory or yukti.

2. False Superimposition followed by negation is taught by wise.

The commentary concludes that, False attributes are added on Self and then they are denied. This is the traditional method as taught by wise men. This technique is called as adhyAropa apavAda.

For Simplicity e.g. from only Gita are given. Also note that Swamiji pointed out e.g. from many upanishads and from Gaudapadacharya's karika on Mandukya Upanishad. Gaudapadacharya says, with this verse the shruti negates all that it has taught.

Now Lets analyze the last verse of Chapter 13

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा।

भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम्।।13.34।।

13.34 They who, by the eye of knowledge, perceive the distinction between the field and its knower and also the liberation from the Nature of being, go to the Supreme.

Sanskrit commentary by Sri Sankaracharya

-- -क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोः यथाव्याख्यातयोः एवं यथाप्रदर्शितप्रकारेण अन्तरम् इतरेतरवैलक्षण्यविशेषं ज्ञानचक्षुषा शास्त्राचार्यप्रसादोपदेशजनितम् आत्मप्रत्ययिकं ज्ञानं चक्षुः, तेन ज्ञानचक्षुषा, भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च, भूतानां प्रकृतिः अविद्यालक्षणा अव्यक्ताख्या, तस्याः भूतप्रकृतेः मोक्षणम् अभावगमनं च ये विदुः विजानन्ति, यान्ति गच्छन्ति ते परं परमात्मतत्त्वं ब्रह्म, न पुनः देहं आददते इत्यर्थः।।इति श्रीमत्परमहंसपरिव्राजकाचार्यस्य श्रीगोविन्दभगवत्पूज्यपादशिष्यस्य श्रीमच्छंकरभगवतः कृतौ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीताभाष्येत्रयोदशोऽध्यायः।।श्रीमच्छंकरभगवत्पादविरचितम्श्रीमद्भगवद्गीताभाष्यम् ।।13.34।।

Hindi translation by Sri Harikrishandas Goenka (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary)

सारे अध्यायके अर्थका उपसंहार करनेके लिये यह श्लोक ( कहा जाता है ) -- जो पुरुष शास्त्र और आचार्यके उपदेशसे उत्पन्न आत्मसाक्षात्काररूप ज्ञाननेत्रोंद्वारा, पहले बतलाये हुए क्षेत्र और क्षेत्रज्ञके अन्तरको, -- उनकी पारस्परकि विलक्षणताको, इस पूर्वदर्शित प्रकारसे जान लेते हैं, और वैसे ही अव्यक्त नामक अविद्यारूप भूतोंकी प्रकृतिके मोक्षको, यानी उसका अभाव कर देनेको भी जानते हैं, वे परमार्थतत्त्वस्वरूप ब्रह्मको प्राप्त हो जाते हैं, पुनर्जन्म नहीं पाते ।।13.34।।

English translation by Swami Gambhirananda (on Sri Sankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary) - Simplified

13.35 Those who know thus, in the manner described above; through the eye of wisdom-the eye is the realization in the form of the knowledge of the Self, which arises from following the instructions of the scriptures and teachers; through that eye of wisdom; the distinction, the particular mutual distinction between the field and the Knower of the field as they have been explained; and the annihilation of the Matrix of beings-the Matrix of beings is that which is described as ignorance and is called the Unmanifest; (those who know) the annihilation (moksanam) of that Matrix of beings, they reach, go to the Supreme, to Brahman, the Reality which is the supreme Goal. The idea is that they do not take up a body again.

Idea is being Witness is given in 1st verse of chapter 13

श्री भगवानुवाच

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।

एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः।।13.1।।

13.1 The Blessed Lord said -- O son of Kunti, this body is referred to as the 'field'. Those who are versed in this call him who is conscious of it as the 'knower of the field'.

From this we conclude that Adi Shankara pointed out traditional method of teaching found in shastras is adhyaropa apavada i.e, first there is a false superimposition on the Self. Self is separated as a witness and then then the superimposition on the Self is removed.

This is done keeping in mind the mental make-up of disciple.

In the beginning all disciples are in duality. It is like milk and water mixed and inseparable.

So first the qualities of Self are given which are different from the qualities of Objects of perception.

Next step is to separate the witness from the sense objects by instructing to be a witness of sense objects, thoughts and mind. This is like separation of milk from water. Those who are capable of doing this or practicing this art are called Hansa (Swan). Hansa is an important symbol in Advaita as it is said that it can separate milk from water.

After one separates oneself i.e. 'I' or Atman from the sense objects, the qualities superimposed on Self are also negated by saying that which not being and not non-being, cannot be described by words, without beginning and end (BG 13.32) or as in Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahman, beyond words, beyond mind and speech, etc. Here there is an attempt to negate the eariler attribute like being witness, bliss, most subtlest, etc. After this negation of false superimposition, Self Alone shines. One enters into the state of Nirvikalp Samadhi, where there is no second, no one to experience and hence this state cannot be described in words.

To sum up,

  1. Give knowledge that Self is different than body and sense objects i.e. atma-anatma vivek, nitya - anitya vivek

  2. Give knowledge that Self is witness and that Self is indeweller of the body and hence can be a witness - kshetra-kshetragnya viveka, drig-drashya vivek, drasTA-driShya viveka

  3. Give knowledge that Self cannot be perceived and is beyond mind

In first two steps, some attributes like omnipresent, witness, etc are superimposed on Self

In third step, all the attributes are negated, so that only Self Shines. There is no witness to see Self or Brahman.

This is the traditional teaching.

adhyAropa apavAda is also found in viShNu sahanranAma Sankara bhASya.

adhyAropa apavAda in viShNu sahasranAma bhASya

Adi Sankara while explaining 10th name pUtAtmA says -

By भूत्कृत् bhUtakrut etc names, they (seem to suffer from the) दोशा doSa (defect) of गुणआधिनता guNaAdhinatA i.e. it looks like paramAtmA is influenced by three guNa-s, hence now, by saying pUtAtmA, which means of pure nature (पवित्रस्वरुप), that doSa (defect) is negated (प्रतिषिध्यते, pratiShidhyate). Adi Sankara further quotes Sv. Up. 6.11 shruti vacan 'केवलो निर्गुणश्च' 'kevalo nirguNaSca'.

Adi Sankara further explains that, the association of puruSa with three guNa-s is by Self will only, meaning, puruSa is not bound by three guNa-s, but it is the controller of guNa-s.

Adi Sankara further explains 11th word 'परमात्मा' as - that which is the best (परम) and is also AtmA (आत्मा), is called by the name 'परमात्मा' paramAtmA. That [paramAtmA] is different from cause and effect (कार्य-कारण) and is of the nature of 'नित्य-शुद्ध-बुध्दमुक्त', eternal-pure-free.

My praNAma-s (prostrations) to all the teachers of Traditional teaching, my praNAma-s to all the wisemen, to Shri Adi Shankara to Shri GaudpadAchArya and to Shri Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati. My koti koti pranam to my Guru who put me on the path of spirituality and teaching this method.

Before we try to find this teaching, lets understand how this method is traditional.

How is this method Traditional?

This technique is not innovated by our acharya. In his Gita Bhasya he writes,

"Thus, as is well known, there is saying of the people versed in tradition, 'The Transcendental is described with the help of superimposition and its refutation'. "

It is also found in Adi Shankara's Param Guru GauDapAdAchArya (Gaudapadacharya) . GauDapadAchArya has cited Br. Up. in his Mandukya kArikA. He says,

'The text denies all that it had previously taught. by saying ''he (the Self) is neither this nor that (Br. Up.. II.iii.6)'', and by showing that the Self is beyond all perception and conception. Through this the Unborn is able to manifest' (G.K. III.26)'

Source: Page 4, Method of Vedanta, Swami SAcchidanandendra Saraswati, translated by A. J. Alston.

It is well known that Sri Gaudapada has the universal reputation in the Vedantic world of having been teacher of BhagavadpAda's teacher GovindpAda. Gaudapada himself has referred with marks of respect to earlier knowers of the tradition, in the words, 'By experts in Upanishads' (G.K. II.31) and 'By sages thoroughly conversant with Veda' (G.K. II.35)

Source: Page 39-40, Chapter 3, Method of Vedanta, Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati, translated by A. J. Alston.

If we have a look at adhyAsa BhASyam, an intro to SArIrika MimimAmsA (Brahma SUtra), it talks about avidya, it's reason and removal of avidya. Acharya ssays that avidyA is adhyAsa, superimposition of non-self upon Self (Atman), what is left is pure Knowledge i.e. vidyA meaning the experience of Brahman (not as separate entity). There is no mention in his intro that the purpose is to establish Vishnu as Brahman or give supreme satus to Vishnu or any form of God.

We can find adhyAsa BhASya here (html - advaita-vedanta.org), here (pdf of html at scribd) and here (pdf at scribd- commentary by Swami Ghambhirananda)

adhyAropa apavAda by post Sankara advaitins

adhyAropa apavAda is found in pancadaSI of SrI vidyAraNya svAmI and in vedAnta sAra of sadAnanda yogigindra.

adhyAropa apavAda in yoga texts

yoga is a dualitc school which meditative approach than philosophical approach. Meditation in the advaita way is called as nidhidhyAsana. Unlike nidhidhyAsana where the enquirer literally enquires into the true nature of his Self and tries to find the source of first person i.e. 'I' by separating 'I' from all that is 'not-I' by the power of discrimination, dispassion and other qualities. While these qualities are also important for a yogI and are also mentioned in some yoga texts, the path is to strengthen physical and other bodies, clean and purify nADI-s and raise the kunDalini from mulAdhAra to sahasrAra chakra so as to get enlightened. Various ways to do so are mentioned using various Asana-s, prANAyam-s, kriyAs-, meditation on chakra-s and so on. The final destination according to a yogI is also nirvikalp samAdhi.

yoga accepts both theories, the world is real, as said by guru gorakshanath in siddha siddhAnta paddhati and Jnandeva in his Amritanubhava or the world is unreal as said by Patanjali in his Yoga Sutra 2.22. It also accepts meditation on both saguNa and nirguNa brahman as mentioned in yoga yajnavalkya, a text highly revered by A great yogi of 20th century T Krishnamacharya of Sri Vaishnav Sampraday. According to him, Yoga Yajnavalkya is older than of most available literature on yoga.

adhyAropa apavAda in Siva samhitA

Dating and authenticity of Siva samhitA - Can be skipped

Siva samhitA is one of the three principle texts on haTha yoga, the other two being geraNDa samhitA (composed in 17th Century) and haTha yoga pradipikA of svAtmArAma, a student of nAtha yoga. Most scholars believe Siva samhitA as composed in 16-17th century, but James Mallinson in his critical commentary and translation of Siva samhitA argues that this text is widely quoted by medieval saints like SankarAnanda, the guru of the great vidyAraNya svAmI (13-14th century), ballAla (commentator on Siva saharanAma), nArAyaNa tirth (14-15th century), and bhAvadeva mIshrA. Further, he said that Siva samhitA borrowed verses from older works like amritasiddhi which is said to be composed in 12th century. Hence Mallinson puts Siva samhitA as composed in 1500 CE. However, I would say that since vidyAraNya svAmI lived from 1331–1386, hence the work out to be olden than him. Considering the stature of vidyAraNyta svAmI, SankarAnandA and other AcArya-s we can conclude that this work is much older than 1500 CE and is considered as authentic as it is quoted by various AcArya-s. The author of Siva samhitA is unknown.

In chapter 1, verse 67 of Siva samhitA the author describes adhyAropa apavAda

1.67 That one Spirit, through differentiation, verily becomes a son, a father, etc. The sacred scriptures have demonstrated the universe to be the freak of mAyA. The yogI destroys this phenomenal universe by realising that it is but the result of adhyAropa and by means of apavAda.

adhyAropa apavAda in all 10 (ten) Upanishads

Since we find this teaching in Bhagavad Gita, which is essence of Upanishads, upanishads should also contain this teaching.

GauDapadAchArya had given example of BrihadAraNya Upanishad in his kArikA, lets study this upanishad first. It should also be noted that our vArttikakAra (SureshvarAchArya) has written his vArttikA- (sub-commentaries, explanatory notes on Shankara BhASya) of BrihadAraNya and Taittiriya Upanishads, both belonging to Yajurveda. So both are very important to Advaitins. Another reason to select Br. Up. to study is that it is in the AraNyaka part of Shukla Yajurveda, while Isa is in the Samhita part.

adhyAropa apavAda in BrihadAraNya Upanishad

AdhyAropa -Superimosition of different forms gross, subtle, air, either, etc on Brahman

II-iii-1: Brahman has but two forms – gross and subtle, mortal and immortal, limited and unlimited, defined and undefined.

II-iii-2: The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. It is mortal, it is limited, and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the sun that shines, for it is the essence of the defined.

II-iii-3: Now the subtle – it is air and the ether. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun, for that is the essence of the undefined. This is with reference to the gods.

II-iii-4: Now with reference to the body: the gross form is but this – what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is mortal, it is limited and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the eye, for it is the essence of the defined.

II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye, for this is the essence of the undefined.

ApavAda - Retraction of everything said before

II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep’s wool, or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this, not this’. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

adhyAropa apavAda in Isa Upanishad

AdhyAropa -Superimosition of lordship on Brahman

1. Om. All this should be covered by the Lord, whatsoever moves on the earth.

4. Unmoving, It is one, faster than the mind. The senses cannot reach It, for It proceeds ahead. Remaining static. It overtakes others that run. On account of Its presence, Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings.

ApavAda - Retraction of everything said before

5. It moves; It moves not. It is far; It is near. It is within all; It is without all.

adhyAropa apavAda in Kena Upanishad

AdhyAropa -Superimosition of attirbutes like senses and five elements on Brahman

I-1. Wished by whom is the mind directed to fall (on its objects)? Directed by whom does the foremost vital air move? By whom is wished this speech which the people utter? Who is the radiant being that unites the eye and the ear (with their objects)?

I-2. Because He is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the speech of speech, the vital air of the vital air, and the eye of the eye, the wise, freeing themselves (from the identity with the senses) and renouncing the world, become immortal.

ApavAda - Retraction of everything said before

I-3. The eye does not reach there, nor speech, nor mind, nor do we know (Its mature). Therefore we don’t know how to impart instruction (about It). Distinct indeed is That from the known and distinct from the unknown. Thus have we heard from the ancients who expounded It to us.

AdhyAropa -Superimosition of attirbutes like senses and five elements on Brahman

I-4. That which is not uttered by speech, that by which the word is expressed, know That alone to be Brahman, and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped.

I-5. That which one does not think with the mind, that by which, they say, the mind is thought, know That alone to be Brahman, and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped.

I-6. That which man does not see with the eye, that by which man sees the activities of the eye, know That alone to be Brahman, and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped.

I-7. That which man does not hear with the ear, that by which man hears the ear’s hearing, know That alone to be Brahman, and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped.

I-8. That which man does not smell with the organ of smell, that by which the organ of smell is attracted towards its objects, know That alone to be Brahman, and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped.

ApavAda - Retraction of everything said before

II-3. It is known to him to whom It is unknown; he to whom It is known does not know It. It is unknown to those who know, and known to those who know not.

adhyAropa apavAda in Katha Upanishad

AdhyAropa - Logical Reasoning

1-I-29. O Death, tell us of that, of the great Beyond, about which man entertain doubt. Nachiketas does not pray for any other boon than this which enters into the secret that is hidden.

1-II-1. Different is (that which is) preferable; and different, indeed, is the pleasurable. These two, serving different purposes, blind man. Good accrues to him who, of these two, chooses the preferable. He who chooses the pleasurable falls from the goal.

1-II-2. The preferable and the pleasurable approach man. The intelligent one examines both and separates them. Yea, the intelligent one prefers the preferable to the pleasurable, (whereas) the ignorant one selects the pleasurable for the sake of yoga (attainment of that which is not already possessed) and kshema (the preservation of that which is already in possession).

ApavAda - Retraction of knowing by logical reasoning

1-II-8. This (Self), if taught by an inferior person, is not easily comprehended, for It is variously thought of. Unless taught by another (who is a perceiver of non-difference) there is no way (of comprehending It), for It is not arguable and is subtler than subtlety.

1-II-9. This (knowledge of the Self) attained by thee cannot be had through logical reasoning. O dearest, this doctrine, only if taught by some teacher (other than a logician), leads to right knowledge. O, thou art rooted in truth. May a questioner be ever like thee, O Nachiketas.

Separation of Self from non-Self by being a witness - An Intermediate Step in Spiritual Progress

1-II-13. Having heard this and grasped it well, the mortal, separating the virtuous being (from the body etc.,) and attaining this subtle Self, rejoices having obtained that which causes joy. The abode (of Brahman), I think, is wide open unto Nachiketas.

1-II-14. Tell me of that which thou seest as distinct from virtue, distinct from vice, distinct from effect and cause, distinct from the past and the future.

1-II-17. This support is the best; this support is the supreme. Knowing this support one is magnified in the world of Brahman.

AdhyAropa - Brahman or Self as Antaryamin

1-II-20. The Self that is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great is seated in the heart of every creature. One who is free from desire sees the glory of the Self through the tranquillity of the mind and senses and becomes absolved from grief.

1-II-21. While sitting, It goes far, while lying It goes everywhere. Who other than me can know that Deity who is joyful and joyless.

1-II-22. The intelligent one having known the Self to be bodiless in (all) bodies, to be firmly seated in things that are perishable, and to be great and all-pervading, does not grieve.

1-II-23. The Self cannot be attained by the study of the Vedas, not by intelligence nor by much hearing. Only by him who seeks to know the Self can It be attained. To him the Self reveals Its own nature.

1-III-9. But the man who has a discriminating intellect as his driver, and a controlled-mind as the reins, reaches the end of the path – that supreme state of Vishnu.

1-III-10. The sensory objects are subtler than the senses, and subtler than the sensory objects is mind. But intellect is subtler than mind and subtler than intellect is Mahat (the Hiranyagarbha).

1-III-11. The unmanifested (avyakta) is subtler than Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) and subtler than the unmanifested is Purusha. There is nothing subtler than Purusha. That is the end, that is the supreme goal.

2-I-12. The Purusha, of the size of a thumb, dwells in the body. (Realizing Him as) the Lord of the past and the future, one does not (henceforward) want to protect oneself. This verily is that (thou seekest).

2-I-13. The Purusha of the size of a thumb is like a smokeless flame and is the Lord of the past and the future. He certainly exists now and shall certainly exist tomorrow. This verily is that (thou seekest).

ApavAda - Duality of Purusha entering into bodies as antaryamin is refuted or retracted by explaining the final state as non-dual

2-I-10. What indeed is here is there; what is there is here again. Whoso here sees as though different, passes from death to death.

2-I-11. By mind alone is this attainable; there is no difference here whatsoever. Whoso here sees as though different, passes from death to death.

Purusha as Subtlest

1-III-11. The unmanifested (avyakta) is subtler than Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) and subtler than the unmanifested is Purusha. There is nothing subtler than Purusha. That is the end, that is the supreme goal.

Retraction of Purusha being subtliest by defining the size of Purusha

2-I-12. The Purusha, of the size of a thumb, dwells in the body. (Realizing Him as) the Lord of the past and the future, one does not (henceforward) want to protect oneself. This verily is that (thou seekest).

2-I-13. The Purusha of the size of a thumb is like a smokeless flame and is the Lord of the past and the future. He certainly exists now and shall certainly exist tomorrow. This verily is that (thou seekest).

adhyAropa apavAda in PraSNa Upanishad (Prashna Upanishad)

AdhyAropa - Creation and sense of duality, division of Self / Ishvara

I-4: To him he said: The Lord of all creatures became desirous of progeny. He deliberated on (past Vedic) knowledge. Having brooded on that knowledge, He created a couple – food and Prana – under the idea, “These two will produce creatures for me in multifarious ways.”

ApavAda - Refuting Duality, as Self is immutable (Unchanging / Indivisible)

IV-9: And this one is the seer, feeler, hearer, smeller, taster, thinker, ascertainer, doer – the Purusha (pervading the body and senses), that is a knower by nature. This becomes wholly established in the supreme, immutable Self.

IV-10: He who realises that shadowless, bodiless, colourless, pure, Immutable attains the supreme Immutable Itself. O amiable one, he, again, who realises, becomes omniscient and all. Illustrative of this there occurs this verse:

adhyAropa apavAda in Taittiriya Upanishad


II-iii-1: The senses act by following the vital force in the mouth; all human beings and animals that are there act similarly; since on the vital force depends the life of all creatures, therefore it is called the life of all; those who worship the vital force as Brahman, attain the full span of life; since on the vital force depends the life of all, it is called the life of all.

ApavAda - Brahman is beyond words (speech) and mind

II-iv-1: One is not subjected to fear at any time if one knows the Bliss that is Brahman failing to reach which (Brahman, as conditioned by the mind), words, along with the mind, turn back.

AdhyAropa - Knowing Brahman

II-vi-1:He (the Self) wished, “Let me be many, let me be born. He undertook a deliberation. Having deliberated, he created all this that exists. That (Brahman), having created (that), entered into that very thing. And having entered there, It became the formed and the formless, the defined and the undefined, the sustaining and the non-sustaining, the sentient and the insentient, the true and the untrue. Truth became all this that there is. They call that Brahman Truth. Pertaining to this, there occurs this verse:

II-viii-5: He that is here in the human person, and He that is there in the sun, are one. He who knows thus attains, after desisting from this world, this self made of food, attains this self made of vital force, attains this self made of mind, attains this self made of intelligence, attains this self made of bliss.

ApavAda - Brahman cannot be known, as it is beyond mind (and senses)

II-ix-1: The enlightened man is not afraid of anything after realising that Bliss of Brahman, failing to reach which, words turn back along with the mind.

Note: One cannot know Brahman as it is indescribable

adhyAropa apavAda in Aitareya Upanishad

AdhyAropa - Description of Duality and entering into something

I-iii-11: He thought, “How indeed can it be there without Me ?” He thought, “Through which of the two ways should I enter ?” He thought, “If utterance is done by the organ of speech, smelling by the sense of smell, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, feeling by the sense of touch, thinking by the mind, the act of drawing in (or pressing down) by Apana, ejecting by the procreative organ, then who (or what) am I ?”

I-iii-12: Having split up this very end, He entered through this door. This entrance is known as vidriti (the chief entrance). Hence it is delightful. Of Him there are three abodes – three (states of) dream. This one is an abode, this one is an abode. This one is an abode.

ApavAda - Everything else is Brahman, a non-dual experience, thereby retracting from everything said earlier.

I-iii-13: Being born, He manifested all the beings; for did He speak of (or know) anything else ? He realised this very Purusha as Brahman, the most pervasive, thus: “I have realised this”.


Verse I.iii.11 says something about entering into something, hearing, etc, which means there is duality

Verse I.iii.12 describes of three states of consciousness

Verse I.iii.13 describes non-duality, as self or Brahman does not see anything else, which means it realized itself as non-dual Self in which everything that looked dual was actually the Self. Hence the shruti is retracting from everything that it said earlier.

adhyAropa apavAda in Mundaka Upanishad


II-ii-2: That which is bright and is subtler than the subtle, and that on which are fixed all the worlds as well as the dwellers of the worlds, is this immutable Brahman; It is this vital force; It, again, is speech and mind. This Entity, that is such, is true. It is immortal. It is to be penetrated, O good-looking one, shoot (at It).

ApavAda - Final State

II-i-2: The Purusha is transcendental, since He is formless. And since He is coextensive with all that is external and internal and since He is birthless, therefore He is without vital force and without mind; He is pure and superior to the (other) superior imperishable (Maya).

AdhyAropa - Intermediate state - renunciation of non-Self

II-ii-5: Know that Self alone that is one without a second, on which are strung heaven, the earth and the inter-space, the mind and the vital forces together with all the other organs; and give up all other talks. This is the bridge leading to immortality.

ApavAda - Brahman is beyond Mind and senses

I-i-6: (By the higher knowledge) the wise realize everywhere that which cannot be perceived and grasped, which is without source, features, eyes, and ears, which has neither hands nor feet, which is eternal, multiformed, all-pervasive, extremely subtle, and undiminishing and which is the source of all.

II-ii-10: There the sun does not shine, nor the moon or the stars; nor do these flashes of lightning shine there. How can this fire do so ? Everything shines according as He does so; by His light all this shines diversely.

AdhYaropa - duality

I-i-8: Through knowledge Brahman increases in size. From that is born food (the Unmanifested). From food evolves Prana (Hiranyagarbha); (thence the cosmic) mind; (thence) the five elements; (thence) the worlds; (thence) the immortality that is in karmas.

ApavAda - non-duality

II-ii-11: All this that is in front is but Brahman, the immortal. Brahman is at the back, as also on the right and the left. It is extended above and below, too. This world is nothing but Brahman, the highest.

Note: Here the destination is given earlier, then follows the process of renunciation and being a witness to reach the state one is seeking.

[Some work needs to done to make it more clear]


III-i-3: When the seer sees the Purusha – the golden-hued, creator, lord, and the source of the inferior Brahman – then the illumined one completely shakes off both merit and demerit, becomes taintless, and attains absolute equality.


III-i-8: It is not comprehended through the eye, nor through speech, nor through the other senses; nor is It attained through austerity or karma. Since one becomes purified in mind through the favourableness of the intellect, therefore can one see that indivisible Self through meditation.

AdhyAropa - sense of duality - Self is divided and is seated in heart

III-i-7: It is great and self-effulgent; and Its form is unthinkable. It is subtler than the subtle. It shines diversely. It is farther away than the far-off, and It is near at hand in this body. Among sentient beings It is (perceived as) seated in this very body, in the cavity of the heart.

ApavAda - non-duality - Self is indivisible and inperceivable

III-i-8: It is not comprehended through the eye, nor through speech, nor through the other senses; nor is It attained through austerity or karma. Since one becomes purified in mind through the favourableness of the intellect, therefore can one see that indivisible Self through meditation.

III-ii-3: This Self is not attained through study, nor through the intellect, nor through much hearing. The very Self which this one (i.e. the aspirant) seeks is attainable through that fact of seeking; this Self of his reveals Its own nature.

adhyAropa apavAda in Mandukya Upanishad

AdhyAropa - Self as different states of consciousness and as Ishvara

3. (The Self) seated in the waking state and called Vaisvanara who, possessed of the consciousness of the exterior, and seven limbs and nineteen mouths, enjoys the gross objects, is the first quarter.

4. (The Self) seated in the state of dream and called Taijasa who, possessed of the consciousness of the interior, and seven limbs and nineteen mouths, enjoys the subtle objects, is the second quarter.

5. Where the sleeper desires not a thing of enjoyment and sees not any dream, that state is deep sleep. (The Self) seated in the state of deep sleep and called Prajna, in whom everything is unified, who is dense with consciousness, who is full of bliss, who

is certainly the enjoyer of bliss, and who is the door to the knowledge (of the preceding two states), is the third quarter.

6. This is the Lord of all; this is omniscient; this is the in-dwelling controller (of all); this is the source and indeed the origin and dissolution of all beings.

ApavAda - Self beyond states of Consciousness - cessation of controller and hence indewller different than Self thereby retracting everything earlier said

7. The Fourth is thought of as that which is not conscious of the internal world, nor conscious of the external world, nor conscious of both the worlds, nor dense with consciousness, nor simple consciousness, nor unconsciousness, which is unseen, actionless, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable, indescribable, whose proof consists in the identity of the Self (in all states), in which all phenomena come to a cessation, and which is unchanging, auspicious, and non-dual. That is the Self; that is to be known.

2. All this is certainly Brahman. This Self (Atman) is Brahman. This Self, as such, is possessed of four quarters.

AdhYaropa - OM as three States

8. That same Self, from the point of view of the syllable, is Om, and viewed from the stand point of the letters, the quarters are the letters, and the letters are the quarters. The letters are a, u and m.

9. Vaisvanara seated in the waking state is the first letter a, owing to its all-pervasiveness or being the first. He who knows thus verily accomplishes all longings and becomes the first.

10. Taijasa seated in the dream is u, the second letter (of Om), owing to the similarity of excellence or intermediate position. He who knows thus verily advances the bounds of his knowledge and becomes equal (to all) and none who is not a knower of Brahman is born in his family.

11. Prajna seated in the state of deep sleep is m, the third letter (of Om), because of his being the measure or the entity wherein all become absorbed. He who knows thus measures all this and absorbs all.

ApavAda - OM beyond three states

12. That which is without letters (parts) is the Fourth, beyond apprehension through ordinary means, the cessation of the phenomenal world, the auspicious and the non-dual. Thus Om is certainly the Self. He who knows thus enters the Self by the Self.

adhyAropa apavAda in Chandogya Upanishad


III-vi-4: As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of (or similar to that of) the Vasus.

III-vii-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.

III-vii-4: As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the south and set in the north and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Rudras.

III-viii-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.

III-viii-4: As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the west and set in the east and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Adityas.

III-ix-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.

III-ix-4: As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in the north and set in the south and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Maruts.

III-x-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.

III-x-4: As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, even twice so long does he (the Sun) rise in overhead and set below and even so long does he retain the sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Sadhyas.

ApavAda - retracting from everything that is said earlier

III-xi-1: Then, rising from there upward, he will neither rise nor set. He will remain alone in the middle. There is this verse about it:

III-xi-2: ‘Never does this happen there. Never did the sun set there nor did it rise. O gods, by this, my assertion of the truth, may I not fall from Brahman’.

III-xi-3: Verily, for him the sun neither rises nor sets. He who thus knows this secret of the Vedas, for him, there is perpetual day.


adhyAropa apavAda in Svetasvatara Upanishad

AdhyAropa - finding the cause of Brahman

I-1: Students of Brahman (i.e. the Vedas) discuss (among themselves): What is the cause ? (Is it) Brahman ? Whence are we born ? Why do we live ? Where is our final rest ? Under whose orders are we, who know the Brahman, subjected to the law of happiness and misery ?

ApavAda - Brahman is causeless i.e. Beginning-less and beyond time, space law, nature, etc

I-2: Time, nature, law, chance, matter, energy, intelligence – neither these, nor combination of these, can bear examination because of their own birth, identity and the existence of the self. The self also is not a free agent, being under the sway of happiness and misery.

AdhyAropa - Duality: Jiva and Ishvara and Brahman are different

I-6: In this infinite wheel of Brahman, in which everything lives and rests, the pilgrim soul is whirled about. Knowing the individual soul, hitherto regarded as separate, to be itself the Moving Force, and blessed by Him, it attains immortality.

I-8: The Lord supports this universe, which consists of a combination of the perishable and the imperishable, the manifest and the unmanifest. As long as the self does not know the Lord, it gets attached to worldly pleasures, and is bound; but when it knows Him, all fetters fall away from it.

ApavAda: Refutation of Duality, unity of Jiva nad Ishvara and Brahman

I-11: With the knowledge of God, all fetters fall off. With the waning of ignorance, birth and death cease. Going beyond the consciousness of the body by meditating on Him, one reaches the third state, viz., the universal lordship. All his desires are satisfied, and he becomes one without a second.

AdhyAropa - Duality: Jiva and Ishvara and Brahman are different

I-4: We think of Him as the universe resembling a wheel which has one felly with a triple tyre, sixteen extremities, fifty spokes, twenty counter-spokes and six sets of eight; which is driven along three different roads by means of a belt that is single yet manifold; and which each revolution gives rise to two.

ApavAda: Refutation of Duality, unity of Jiva nad Ishvara and Brahman

I-10: Matter is perishable, but God is imperishable and immortal. He, the only God, rules over the perishable matter and individual souls. By meditating on him, by uniting with Him, and by becoming one with Him, there is cessation of all illusion in the end.

I-9: The conscious subject and the unconscious object, the master and the dependent, are both unborn. She, too, who is engaged in bringing about the relation of the enjoyer and the enjoyed (or between these two), is unborn. When all these three are realized as Brahman, the self becomes infinite, universal and free from the sense of agentship.

I-12: This is to be known as eternally existing in one’s own self. Indeed, there is nothing to be known beyond this. As a result of meditation the enjoyer, the enjoyed and the power which brings about the enjoyment – all are declared to be the three aspects of Brahman.

AdhyAropa - Duality - modifications of Prakruti

II-11: Forms that appear like snow, smoke, sun, wind, fire, fire-fly, lightning, crystal and moon, precede the manifestation of Brahman in Yoga practice.

ApavAda - refutation of duality - no modificatios of Prakruti in Atma Sthiti

II-15: When the Yogin realizes the truth of Brahman, through the perception of the truth of Atman in this body as a self-luminous entity, then, knowing the Divinity as unborn, eternal and free from all the modifications of Prakriti, he is freed from all sins.

Note: The reason for duality and multiple appearance is due to ignorance. It is mentioned in earlier verses

I-11: With the knowledge of God, all fetters fall off. With the waning of ignorance, birth and death cease. ...


IV-2: That Itself is the fire, That is the sun, That is the air, That is the moon, That is also the starry firmament, That is the Brahman, That is the waters, That is Prajapati.

V-4: Just as the sun shines lighting up all space above, below and across, even so does that one adorable God, the repository of all goodness and greatness, preside over everything that has the nature of a cause.


VI-14: The sun does not shine there; neither the moon, nor the stars. There these lightnings shine not – how then this fire ? Because He shines, everything shines after Him. By His light all this shines.

Note: In earlier verses it is said that NirguNa Brahman is superior than saguNa Brahman

III-7: Higher than this Personal Brahman is the infinite Supreme Brahman, who is concealed in all beings according to their bodies, and who, though remaining single, envelops the whole universe. Knowing him to be the Lord, one becomes immortal.

III-8: I have realized this Great Being who shines effulgent like the sun beyond all darkness. One passes beyond death only on realizing Him. There is no other way of escape from the circle of births and deaths.

Source: Extracted from

Sanskrit: Vedanta PrakriyA pratyabhigya, by Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati, Adhyatma Prakashan Karyalaya.

'English: Method of Vedanta' by Swami Sacchidanandendra Saraswati, translated by A. J. Alston

adhyAropa apavAda in Maha Narayana Upanishad

Adhyaropa - Creation, Lord Entering into beings.

I-1: The Lord of creation, who is present in the shoreless waters, on the earth and above the heaven and who is greater than the great, having entered the shining intelligences of creatures in seed form, acts in the foetus (which grows into the living being that is born).

I-6: Sages declare: That alone is right and That alone is true: That alone is the venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise. Acts of worship and social utility also are that Reality. That alone being the navel of the universe, sustains manifoldly the universe which arose in the past and which springs to existence at present.

I-7: That alone is Fire: That is Air; That is Sun; That verily is Moon; That alone is shining Stars and Ambrosia. That is Food; That is Water and He is the Lord of creatures.

I-8-9: All nimesas, kalas, muhurtas, kasthas, days, half-months, months, and seasons, were born from the self-luminous Person. The year also was born from Him. He milked water and also these two, the firmament and the heaven.


I-11: His form is not to be beheld; none whosoever beholds Him with the eye. Those who meditate on Him with their minds undistracted and fixed in the heart know Him; they become immortal.

AdhyAropa and ApavADa in brief

If we see trend of Mahanarayana Upanishad, it begins with Creation, with Brahma as innermost Self, then it praises many deities with variants in Gayatri Mantra, Narayana is praised as supreme deity, then Rudra (Shiva) is praised as supreme deity. All this comes under karma-kand. Later in the end, sanyAsa is considered as best means to realize Brahman. Here karma Kand is refuted. In next verses meditation on OM is prescribed, which is nirAkAra. Why is shruti retracting everything that it said before? What about all stuti-s and praise of Supreme Godhead (SAguNa Brahman)? Names and forms are retracted and meditation on NirguNa Brahman is advised. This technique is called adhyAropa ApavAda.


LXXIX-11: Others devoted to the Vedic religion say that sacrifice is the means of liberation. Sacrifice is indeed dear to gods. Verily gods have attained to heaven by their previous deeds of sacrifice. They have driven away demons by sacrifice. By sacrifice those who are hostile become friendly. Everything is supported by sacrifice. Therefore they say sacrifice is the supreme means of liberation.

Note: MimAmsins do not believe in Ishvara, they believe that Veda is supreme and our Vedic Rites give us Fruits and not Ishvara.

LXXIX-12: Inward worship or mental concentration is indeed the means of attaining to the state of Prajapati and so that is holy. Those who possess a mind endowed with the power of inward concentration see and realise what is good. Through mental concentration, seers like Vishvamitra created subjects by mere wish. All depends upon this power of the mind. Therefore they say that the power of inward concentration is the supreme means of liberation. --> Ramana Maharshi's Upadesha Sara, kaya vanga mana ...


LXXIX-13: Wise seers declare that Sannyasa mentioned as the supreme means of liberation is Brahman, and that Brahman is the Universal Spirit, is supremely blissful, is self-born, is the protector of created beings, is the soul of time, and so forth.

LXXIX-18: (The Sannyasin having meditated upon the Supreme) should concentrate his thoughts on Him uttering the syllable Om. This, the syllable Om, verily is the substance of many great Upanishads and a secret guarded by the gods without imparting to the unfit. He who practises meditation on the Supreme thus with the aid of Pranava after Sannyasa attains to the unlimited greatness of the Supreme. By that he attains to the greatness of Brahman. Thus the secret knowledge has been imparted.

We also have verses like

XII-17: He is the Supreme Lord who transcends the syllable Om which is uttered at the commencement of the recital of the Vedas, which is well established in the Upanishads and which is dissolved in the primal cause during contemplation.

XXXIII-1: The one syllable ‘Om’ is Brahman. Agni is its Deity. Its Rishi also is Brahman. Its metre is Gayatri. Its use is for the union with Paramatman who exists as the manifold universe.

adhyAropa apavAda in Amrit Bindu Upanishad


1. The mind is chiefly spoken of as of two kinds, pure and impure. The impure mind is that which is possessed of desire, and the pure is that which is devoid of desire.

2. It is indeed the mind that is the cause of men’s bondage and liberation. The mind that is attached to sense-objects leads to bondage, while dissociated from sense-objects it tends to lead to liberation. So they think.

3. Since liberation is predicated of the mind devoid of desire for sense-objects, therefore, the mind should always be made free of such desire, by the seeker after liberation.

4. When the mind, with its attachment for sense-objects annihilated, is fully controlled within the heart and thus realises its own essence, then that Supreme State (is gained).

5. The mind should be controlled to that extent in which it gets merged in the heart. This is Jnana (realisation) and this is Dhyana (meditation) also, all else is argumentation and verbiage.


6. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and pleasing to the mind), nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the mind); nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure), but to be thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest, eternal, supreme Bliss Itself); that Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state.

8. That alone is Brahman, without component parts, without doubt and without taint. Realising “I am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman.

9. (Brahman is) without doubt, endless, beyond reason and analogy, beyond all proofs and causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free.

10. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises, “There is neither control of the mind, nor its coming into play”, “Neither am I bound, nor am I a worshipper, neither am I a seeker after liberation, nor one-who has attained liberation”.

AdhyAropa and apavAda in verse 7

7. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters, then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om, the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity.


One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters


then meditate on Om without regard to its letters.

adhyAropa apavAda in Brahma Upanishad

Note: Brahma Upanishad is mentioned in Chandogya Upanishad

AdhyAropa - Creation

1. Om ! Shaunaka, householder of fame, once asked Bhagavan Pippalada of Angira’s family: In this body, the divine city of Brahman, installed, how do they create ? Whose glory does this constitute ? Who is he who became all this glory ?


8. By It all this (universe) is transfixed, as a collection of gems is stringed together on a thread. The Yogi who is the knower of all Yogas and the seer of truth should put on this thread.

Self is Witness, has no attributes

16. The One Lord (self-effulgent) in all beings remaining hidden, all-pervading and the Self of all beings, controlling and watching over all works (good or bad), living in all creatures and the Witness (i.e. neither the doer of any acts nor the enjoyer), the Supreme Intelligence, the One without a second, having no attributes.

Activity of Jiva

20. As the spider weaves out the web and again withdraws it, so the Jiva comes out to and goes back again to the wakeful and dreaming states respectively.


26. From which without reaching It, the speech falls back with the mind, that is the transcendental Bliss of this embodied being, knowing which the wise one is released (from all bondage).

adhyAropa apavAda in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad

adhyAropa - Jiva as doer, enjoyer and sufferer of his deeds

I-2. He said : ‘Whoever depart from this world, all get to the moon. In the earlier half (of the lunar month) it (the moon) flourishes on their vital breaths; in the later half, it causes them to be reproduced. The moon verily is the door of the heavenly world. Who so answers it (aright), him it sets free (to go further). (but) him who does not answer, having become rain, (it) rains down here. Here he becomes a worm or an insect or a fish, or a bird, or a lion, or a boar, or a snake or a tiger or a person or some other in this or that condition according to his deeds and knowledge. Him who has come thus, one asks: ‘Who are you ?’ He should reply:

Witness (Agent)

‘O seasons, from the Resplendent (moon) the seed has been gathered as it was falling from the fifteen-fold (the half lunar month) from the home of the fathers. As such, put me in a man as an agent. With the man as an agent, in a mother infuse me.

I-4. ... He comes to the river Viraja. He crosses it with his mind alone. There he shakes off his good and evil deeds. His dear relations succeed to the good deeds, those not dear to the evil deeds. Then just as one driving a chariot looks at the wheel of the chariot, so he looks upon day and night; so upon good deeds and evil deeds and upon of pairs of opposites.

apavAda - Knower of Brahman is devoid of good and evil deeds

I-4. ... Then just as one driving a chariot looks at the wheel of the chariot, so he looks upon day and night; so upon good deeds and evil deeds and upon of pairs of opposites. Thus he, the knower of Brahman, devoid of good deeds, devoid of evil deeds, goes on to Brahman.

adhyAropa apavAda in subAla Upanishad

(cited by rAmAnuja)


1.1-3 The Unqualified Brahman: They say – ‘What existed ?’ He replied ‘Neither the existent nor the non-existent. From that Tamas was born; from Tamas was born Bhitadi (Prakriti – Matter), from it space, from space air, from air fire, from fire water and from water earth.

This became the Egg; which existing for just a year became two-fold – earth below and sky above. Between was Divine Man with a thousand heads, eyes, feet and arms (Virat-purusha).

4-6 He at first created the death of all creatures, having three eyes, heads and feet, armed with an axe. Brahma was afraid – he entered Brahma himself, he created seven mental sons – they created seven Virats, the pro-creators.


1.4 At the end, becoming Vaisvanara (fire), he burned (destroyed) all creatures – earth was absorbed in water, water in fire, fire in air, air in ether, ether in sense organs, they in subtle elements, they in Prakriti, Prakriti in Mahat, Mahat in Avyakta, Avyakta in Akshara, Akshara in Tamas, it in God. Then there is neither existent nor non-existent. This is the doctrine of dissolution (as given in) Vedas.

adhyAropa apavAda in tejo-bindu Upanishad

(dikipA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)


1.1 PARAM-DHYANA (the supreme meditation) should be upon Tejo-bindu (the seed or source of spiritual light), which is the Atma of the universe, which is seated in the heart, which is of the size of an atom, which pertains to Shiva, which is quiescent and which is gross and subtle, as also above these qualities.

1.5. Therefore know it is the greatest of mysteries, without sleep and without support. It is very subtle, of the form of Soma and is the supreme seat of Vishnu.

1.7. That seat is without Upadhi and is above the reach of speech and mind. It is Svabhava (Self or nature) reachable only by Bhava (being).

1.8. The indestructible seat is associateless, without bliss, beyond mind, difficult to perceive, emancipated and changeless. It should be meditated upon as the liberated, the eternal, the permanent and the indestructible.

Note: Here without bliss means, beyond the reach of experiencing bliss separately, as it is beyond mind.


1.10. It is void and non-void and beyond the void and is abiding in the heart. There is (in It) neither meditation nor meditator, nor the meditated, nor the non-meditated.

1.11. It is not the universe. It is the highest space; it is neither supreme nor above the supreme. It is inconceivable, unknowable, non-truth and not the highest.


1.2. That alone should be the Dhyana of the Munis as well as of men, which is full of pains, which is difficult to meditate on, which is difficult to perceive, which is the emancipated one, which is decayless and which is difficult to attain.


1.12. It is realised by the Munis, but the Devas do not know the supreme One. Avarice, delusion, fear, pride, passion, anger, sin;

1.13. Heat, cold, hunger, thirst, thought and fancy – (all these do not exist in It). (In It) there is no pride of (belonging to) the Brahmana caste, nor is there the collection of the knot of salvation.

1.14. (In It) there is no fear, no happiness, no pains, neither fame nor disgrace. That which is without these states is the supreme Brahman.

adhyAropa apavAda in bAhvrica (Bahvricha) Upanishad

(commented by appaya dikshita and bhAskararAya)


1. Om. The Goddess was indeed one in the beginning. Alone she emitted the world-egg. (She) is known as Love’s Part (IM). (She) is known as the half-syllabic instant after OM.

2. Of Her was Brahma born; was Vishnu born; was Rudra born. All wind-gods were born, ...


5. She alone is Atman. Other than Her is untruth, non-self. Hence is She Brahman-Consciousness, free from (even) a tinge of being and non-being.

adhyAropa apavAda in maitrayAni Upanishad

(Maitrayaniya SAkhA of Sukla yajUrvEda - considered as authentic upanishad)



He bowed and said, ‘Sir, I am ignorant of the self. You know it; please impart it’.



...This indeed, is your self’... (meaning you already exist as Self)

...He replied: ‘It cannot be described. This one, bound by external causes, going upward, suffering and yet not (really) suffering, dispels ignorance like the sun dispelling darkness. The tranquil one rising from this body and approaching the supreme, manifests itself in its own essence, immortal, fearless.



‘Sir, what is the use of enjoyment in this body which smells badly and is a mass of bones, skins, etc., attacked by lust, anger, etc., separation from near and dear people, hunger, thirst etc. We see that all this is decaying, like flies and mosquitoes which live and die.



Just as fire without fuel dies in its own source, so the mind by the dying of its modes, calms down in the source. The modes of mind, withdrawn, of the lover of Truth, not deceived by sense objects, are false.

adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSirasa Upanishad

(Cited by RAmAnuja, MAdhva and srikAnta, dipikA by Sankarananda and NArAyaNa)

adhyAropa and apavAda

[In the Atharvasiras Upanishad, the three syllable letter, which has meaning and also does not have meaning and which is perennial stands alone. It is told that it is the basis of everything and there is no basis for it.]

2. He replied: “I alone was in the beginning; I am now; and will be in the future. There is none but me.”

4. (He said): “I am eternal and non-eternal ... I am perishable and imperishable... I alone exist.


52. Next, why is it called All Pervading (Sarvavyapi)? Because by mere recitation, it makes the aspirant Omnipresent. Like the oil in the oil-seed, pervading through all this, it, the peaceful Om, remains mingled and inter-mingled together.

53. Next, why is it infinite? Because the mere recitation of it, makes the reciter feel neither beginning, nor end, or up and down, nor across.

54. Next, why is it named Tara? The mere recitation of it enables one to transcend the great four of the trans migratory life consisting of conception, birth, old age and death.

Note: Here there is an effort to explain that initially there was nothing but one supreme entity Brahman, here referred to as rudra. He created all beings and destroys all being. This upanishad also speaks that he is free from pair of opposites. rudra is also called as OM and OM here is defined as nirAkAra, and omnipresent, without beginning and end. The one who chants OM, becomes the same.

This can be summed up as

1. There was only one rudra (Brahman or para Brahman)

2. rudra created worlds and entered into them

3. rudra is praNava (OM)

4. The one who chants OM becomes omnipresent, without beginning and end.

5. rudra is always one and will remain one.

The journey is from one to many and back to one.

adhyAropa apavAda in atharvaSikhA Upanishad

(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha, SankarAnanda and bhASya by ranga rAmAnuja munI, accepted by Saiva-s)


1.1 The sages Pippalada, Aangiras and Sanath Kumara approached the great God like sage, Atharva Maharshi and asked him, “Oh, God like sage, what is the chief aspect of meditation? What is the mantra (holy syllable) on which to meditate? Who can meditate? Who is the God of meditation?”

1.2 The sage Atharva replied to them,” Mainly meditation has to be done on the single letter Om. It itself is the mantra for meditation. The four legs of that mantra are the four devas and the four Vedas. The letter has to be recognized as the Para Brahman (Ultimate reality) and meditated upon.

1.3 to 1.6 explain a, u, m and crescent moon of OM.

1.7 The first is the red Brahma (creative aspect) , the second the holy white Rudra (destructive aspect), the third the black Lord Vishnu (the administrative aspect) and the fourth which is like lightning is the multi coloured Purushothama (best among males).

1.8 This Omkara has four legs and four heads (fires). The fourth is the half syllable sound of “Ma” which is hidden. That is pronounced in a small short form, slightly extended form (pluthyaga) and much extended form. It is pronounced as Om with one mathra, Om in two mathras and Om in the extended three mathras (mathra is the unit of pronunciation).


1.9. The fourth peaceful half syllable is hidden in the long ended pronunciation. It is the incomparable glitter of the soul. It is that sound which was never there and which will be never there. ...

Note: Here the trend is

1. Explain Pranav OM, it's 4 parts. 3 parts of OM are associated with Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh and the fourth part is purushottama.

2. Fourth part is further divided into the chandrabindu and the silence after it.

3. Silence indicates transcending everything including trinity of Gods.

adhyAropa apavAda in paingala Upanishad

Cited by Adi Sankara)


I-1 ...Instruct me in regard to the supreme mystery of Aloneness.

I-2. The eminent Yajnavalkya replied: Dear one, in the beginning this (Brahman) indeed existed. It was the eternally free, immutable, everlastingly one, secondless Brahman, full of Truth, Knowledge and Bliss.

I-6 ...From that Self (Virat) arose ether; from the ether, air; from air, fire; from fire, water; from water, earth. These five root-elements are composed of the three Gunas.


I-3. In it existed the primordial and indefinable Prakriti, consisting of Gunas in a state of equipoise, red, white and dark, resembling (the existence of) water, silver, a man and outlines (respectively) in the mirage oyster-shell, a stump and a mirror; what was reflected in it was the Witness Consciousness.

II-9. Texts like Tattvamasi declare the identity with Brahman of the real Jiva concealed by ignorance and part of the unmanifest; not of the other two, the empirical and the illusory Jivas (in the waking and dream-state).

adhyAropa apavAda in Srimad BhAgavatam

AdhyAropa - Brahman with Attirbutes - Krishna as person - quest for Self Realization through karma and bhakti

SB 10.14.4: My dear Lord, devotional service unto You is the best path for self-realization. If someone gives up that path and engages in the cultivation of speculative knowledge, he will simply undergo a troublesome process and will not achieve his desired result. As a person who beats an empty husk of wheat cannot get grain, one who simply speculates cannot achieve self-realization. His only gain is trouble.

SB 10.14.5: O almighty Lord, in the past many yogīs in this world achieved the platform of devotional service by offering all their endeavors unto You and faithfully carrying out their prescribed duties. Through such devotional service, perfected by the processes of hearing and chanting about You, they came to understand You, O infallible one, and could easily surrender to You and achieve Your supreme abode.

SB 10.14.22: Therefore this entire universe, which like a dream is by nature unreal, nevertheless appears real, and thus it covers one's consciousness and assails one with repeated miseries. This universe appears real because it is manifested by the potency of illusion emanating from You, whose unlimited transcendental forms are full of eternal happiness and knowledge.

ApavAda - Self Cannot be realized through karma or Bhakti but by removal of ignorance, which is root cause of bondage. Concepts of bondage and freedom are due to ignorance.

SB 10.14.26: The conception of material bondage and the conception of liberation are both manifestations of ignorance. Being outside the scope of true knowledge, they cease to exist when one correctly understands that the pure spirit soul is distinct from matter and always fully conscious. At that time bondage and liberation no longer have any significance, just as day and night have no significance from the perspective of the sun.

SB 10.14.27: Just see the foolishness of those ignorant persons who consider You to be some separated manifestation of illusion and who consider the self, which is actually You, to be something else, the material body. Such fools conclude that the supreme soul is to be searched for somewhere outside You.

SB 10.14.28: O unlimited Lord, the saintly devotees seek You out within their own bodies by rejecting everything separate from You. Indeed, how can discriminating persons appreciate the real nature of a rope lying before them until they refute the illusion that it is a snake.

adhyAropa apavAda in chatuHslokI bhAgavat, a part of Srimad BhAgavatam

neti-neti is a part of adhyAropa apavADa. neti-neti i.e. negation is done with presumption of adhyAropa i.e. superimposition of non-self on self. We find it in catuhslokI bhagAvat, a part of bhAgavat purANa BP 2.9.30-36

skanda 2, adhyAya 9, sloka-s 30-36. Here it is called as anvaya-vyatireka

Sanskrit-Hindi-English-Translation Adapted from Gita Press


एतावद् एव जिज्ञास्यं तत्त्वजिज्ञासुनात्मनः ।

अन्वयव्यतिरेकाभ्यां यत् स्यात् सर्वत्र सर्वदा ।। २.९.३५ ।।


परमात्माके तत्वको जाननेकी इच्छावले [इच्छा रखनेवाले] मनुष्यको अन्वय और व्यतिरेक से (अर्थात् विधिरूपसे अर्थात् 'परमात्मा ऐसे है', 'परमात्मा ऐसे है', - वह भावसे तथा निषेधभावसे अर्थात् 'परमात्मा वैसे नही है', 'परमात्मा ऐसे नही है', 'परमात्मा ऐसे नही है' [अर्थात् नेति-नेति पद्धतिसे, सिद्धान्तसे] - ऐसे भावसे) इतना ही जानना जरूरी है की (परमात्मा हीं) सर्वदेश और सर्वकालमें विद्यमान हैं - २.९.३५


That which is [concluded] with the help of anvaya (co-presence) and vyatireka (co-absence) to be always [existing] everywhere, that indeed [is this self]. Only this much is [needed] to be known by one desirous of knowing the truth of the self.


It is enough for those who wish to know the true nature of Atman that, that which exists at all places, at all times after applying the process of anvaya [1] and vyatireka [2] is Atman only.

[1] anvaya is present as cause in each kArya (action, effect)

[2] vyatireka is, to remain as a cause of everything after negating effect. i.e. that which remains after neti-neti (not this-not this)

For example, in waking etc states, Atman, which is sAkshi (witness) of these states is the cause, hence it is anyava of Atman in waking etc states and in samAdhi etc, there is vyatireka (negation) of waking, dream and deep sleep.

- srIdhara svAmI


एतन् मतं समातिष्ठ परमेण समाधिना ।

भवान् कल्पविकल्पेषु न विमुह्यति कर्हिचित् ।। २.९.३६ ।।


आप उत्कृष्ट समाधि द्वारा [अर्थात् ध्यानसे], मेरा यह सिद्धान्तमें अच्छी तरह से स्थित हो जाओ. (ईस्से), [ईस ज्ञान मे स्थित रहनेके परिणाम से], कल्प-कल्पान्तरोमें भी कभीभी और कहीभी मोहित नहीं होंगे - २.९.३६


You (Brahmā jī), [please] follow my opinion with full concentration [and faith], and as a result, you will never ever get trapped in various worlds that you create in various kalpa-s.

More instances of Adhyaropa Apavada in Bhagavat and Uddhava Gita can be found here and here.

I hope this helps one gain clarity of true traditional teaching of AdhyAropa ApavAda.