Concepts of Advaita in Shastras



Brahman


Br. Up - II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep’s wool, or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this, not this’. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.


The self, devoid of sins” (Chhandogya Upanishad 8.7.1.),

“The Brahman that is immediate and direct” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.4.1.),

“That which is beyond hunger and thirst“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.5.1.),

"Not-this, not-this” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 2.3.6.), 

“Neither gross nor subtle“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.8.8.),

"This Self is not-this“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.9.26.), 

“It is the Seer Itself unseen“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 3.8.11.),

"Knowledge-Bliss” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad sloka 7, unter 3.9.27.),

“Existence-Knowledge-Infinite“ (Taittiriya Upanishad 2.1.),

"Imperceptible, bodiless“ (Taittiriya Upanishad 2.7.),

"That great unborn Self” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 4.4.22.), 

"Without the vital force and the mind“ (Mundaka Upanishad 2.1.2.),

"Unborn, comprising the interior and exterior“ (Mundaka Upanishad 2.1.2.),

"Consisting of knowledge only“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 2.4.12.), 

"Without interior or exterior“ (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19),

"It is verily beyond what is known as also what is unknown“ (Kena Upanishad 1.3.), 

and „Called Akasa (the self-effulgent one)” (Chhandogya Upanishad 8.14.1.); 

and also through such Smrti texts as the following:

"It neither born nor dies“ (Bhagavad Gita 2.20.),

"It is not affected by anybody's sins“ (Bhagavad Gita 5.15.), 

"Just as air is always in the ether“ Bhagavad Gita 9.6.), 

"The individual Self should be regarded as the universal one“ (Bhagavad Gita 13.2.), 

"It is called neither existent nor nonexistent“ (Bhagavad Gita 13.12.), 

"As the Self is beginningless and devoid of qualities“ (Bhagavad Gita 13.31.), 

"The same in all beings” (Bhagavad Gita 13.27.), and 

"The Supreme Being is different” (Bhagavad Gita 15.17)


Source: Upadesha Sahasri of Sri Adi Shankara.


Brahman is nirAkAra


Kaivalya Upanishad says,


20. I am minuter than the minute, I am likewise the greatest of all, I am the manifold universe. I am the Ancient One, the Purusha and the Ruler, I am the Effulgent One, and the All-good - Kaivalya Up-20


21. Without arms and legs am I, of unthinkable power; I see without eyes, and I hear without ears. I know all, and am different from all. None can know me. I am always the Intelligence - Kaivalya Up-21


nirguNa Brahman is higher than saguNa Brahman



Svetasvatara Upanishads says:


III-7: Higher than this Personal Brahman is the infinite Supreme Brahman, who is concealed in all beings according to their bodies, and who, though remaining single, envelops the whole universe. Knowing him to be the Lord, one becomes immortal. Sv .Up. 3.7


nirguNa Brahman peaceful


Svetasvatara Upanishads says:

IV-14: One attains infinite peace when one realizes that Blissful One who is subtler than the subtlest, who creates the world in the midst of chaos, who assumes various forms, and who is the only one that encompasses the universe. - Sv. Up 4.14



Snake-rope example in Minor upanishads


It is always good to quote from Upanishads commented by Adi shankara and other pUrvAcArya-s. However, there are many upanishads within 108 upanishads. these are accepted by Kanchi Math and Shrigeri Math. however the study is optional and left to individual. Emphasis is principle upanishads. This does not mean that other upanishads are of little authority or of no use. they are gems in their own right. Sincere seekers will surely benefit from them. Lets study some verses from 108 upanishads.

Snake Rope example is not found in 10 principle upanishad, but it is found in many minor upanishads and in bhAgavat PUrANa (Srimad Bhagavatam)

Snake-rope analogy in Minor Upanishads 

II.26-27(a). Because that Yogin has become Brahman, how can Brahman be reborn ? Bondage and liberation, set up by Maya, are not real in themselves in relation to the Self, just as the appearance and disappearance of the snake are not in relation to the stir-less rope. - Atma Upanishad

V.76-98. When the blueness of the sky really exists in it, then the universe really is. When the silver in mother-of pearl can be used in making an ornament, when a man is bitten by (the conception of) a snake in a rope,..." - Tejo Bindu Upanishad

IV-10. (The whole world) is superimposed on the supreme Reality, the Ground, as the snake is on the rope. No curiosity is aroused as regards these superimposed wonders.-  Annapurna Upanishad

79. Like the conception of the snake in a rope, so the idea of the release from life and Samsara is the delusion of time. - Yoga Kundalini Upanishad

14. (25) Ignorance is the illusory knowledge – like that of the snake in the rope – of Brahman that is All in all, all-pervasive and non-dual. (This illusory knowledge) is associated with a plurality of selves based on the plurality of the adjuncts of bondage and liberation, viz.; stations in life, castes, men, women, the immobiles, mankind, (lower) animals and gods. - NirAlamba upanishad

Snake-rope analogy in BhAgavat PUrANa 

SB 10.14.28: O unlimited Lord, the saintly devotees seek You out within their own bodies by rejecting everything separate from You. Indeed, how can discriminating persons appreciate the real nature of a rope lying before them until they refute the illusion that it is a snake.


MAyA and Unreality of the world



How Jeeva is created by association of Prakriti with Brahman :

“Satyam bhaati chichhaayaa darpaNe prativimbavat, tena chitprativimbena trividhaa bhaati saa punah” 

 As reflected image is perceived as real in a mirror, in the same way reflection of consciousness in Prakriti is perceived as real. (47-48) - Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad :

Vikshepa (powr of projection ) and aavarana (veiling power) are two powers of MAyA. The power of projection creates from lingadeha i.e. Jeeva’s body to the whole universe. The aavaraNa power covers (puts veil upon) the difference between seer and seen and also the difference between Brahman and the world. 

When the reflection of consciousness falls on Prakriti as the material cause, then in this world the vyaavhaarik Jeeva comes into being. Because it is imposed on consciousness, it is also perceived as the witness. When the aavarana (veiling power of MAyA) i.e. ignorance (state when reality is covered) is removed, the reality of difference is known and the state of Jeevahood is destroyed.-  Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad :

42-45 The difference between Jeeva and Ishvara (God) is imagined due to MAyA. In reality, the Jeeva made of Consciousness is none but Ishavra itself. The difference between Jeeva and Ishvara is perceived due to differences in names and forms. In reality, there is no difference between the two. If there were real difference between the two then consciousness forms of the both would get violated. The difference seen between one consciousness (Ishvara) and the other (Jeeva) is due to delusion. The non-difference of consciousness is a proven fact by logic and by (experiential) proof. Therefore, by knowing the non-difference in consciousness man becomes free from delusion and sufferings and is established as non-dual blissful Shiva alone. Rudra Hridayopanishad


Objects do not exist in reality


KG 2.12 Indeed, even though objects do not exist really, the samsAra does not seem to end. Just as one who broads on objects meets with disaster alone, even in the dream. Kapila Gita 2.12, bhAgavat purANa, skandha 3


Two Levels of Truth


For, when there is duality, as it were, one sees another …but when all has become just his Ātman, what could one see and through what? .. - Br. Up. 4.5.15

Full verse is

IV-v-15: Because when there is duality, as it were, then one sees something, one smells something, one tastes something, one speaks something, one hears something, one thinks something, one touches something, one knows something. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should one see and through what, what should one smell and through what, what should one taste and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one touch and through what, what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know that owing to which all this is known ? This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, Not this’. It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered – it never feels pain, and never suffers injury. Through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower ? So you have got the instruction, Maitreyi. This much indeed is (the means of) immortality, my dear. Saying this Yajnavalkya left.

Source

Bhagavan in Gita says

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च।।13.17।।

13.17 And the Knowable, though undivided, appears to be existing as divided in all beings, and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator.

Sure the levels are imaginary, or they do not exist, but for whom? - the one who is rooted in Brahman.

Two Levels of Truth in Yoga School

Two levels of truths is not only accepted by Shruti-s, but it is accepted by dualist schools like Patanjali Yoga Sutra

कृतार्थ प्रति नष्टमऊयनष्ट तदन्यसाधारणत्वात्* ॥ २२ ॥

2.22 Though the object of experience becomes unreal to him who has reached the state of liberation, it remains real to all other beings.

P.Y.S. by Swami Prabhavananda of Ramakrishna Ashram, Page 90

Another translation.

2.22 For the one who has attained the goal [of liberation, the seen] disappears [yet, the seen] is not destroyed because of it's common universality.

krta = done
arthan = purpose, goal
prati = towards, for
naSta = destroyed
api = even though
anaSTam = not destroyed
tad = that
anya = other
sAdhAraNatvAt = because of, due to commonality, universality

Kriya Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Siddhas by Marshal Govindan, Page, 86

The author has also connected it with Thirumandiram.

Jiva is accepted at empirical level, but at the same time, one is educated that you wrongly think of yourself as 'Jiva'.

Again, Brahman is not deluded, it APPEARS TO BE deluded.

If we accept that Brahman BECOMEs JIVA then we violate shruti, which says, BG 2.20.

न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचि-
न्नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः।
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो
न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे।।2.20।।

2.20 Never is this One born, and never does It die; nor is it that having come to exist, It will again cease to be. This One is birthless, eternal, undecaying, ancient; It is not killed when the body is killed.

If we take BG 2.20 into context, then theory of the world being created would means that once there was no creation and then it is created. The one which has birth, also has death.

Satya

Now the definition of satya and asatya is also not mine. They are given by Bhagavan in BG 2.16

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः।
उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभि� ��।।2.16।।

2.16 Of the unreal there is no being; the real has no non-existence. But the nature of both these, indeed, has been realized by the seers of Truth.

So which is true, the world is created and hence jiva-s were once created?

For time being, we can overlook the commentaries by acharya-s.

In plain words,

satya is defined as the one which has NO NON-EXISTENCE is permanent, unchanging, undecaying, etc ...

asatya means that which has NO EXISTENCE AT ANY TIME

Hence we cannot take this world, which constantly change, this body, which constantly change as satya. It voids the definition of satya, according Advaita tenet.

The truth is one, hence the only thing that qualifies to be called as real (satya) is Brahman ( Satyam Jnanam anantam Brahma - Tai. Up. 2.1.1)

At no cost we can afford to violate the definitions of real and unreal.

Hence we have to tag this experience as something different than the two. Adi Shankara called this mithyA, which in simple words can mean - Temporary.

Gita herself says that same about the world in BG 8.15

The only thing is we take everything that is changing, moving, etc as mithyA, hence even subtle worlds like heaven, etc also fall under this category.

Further Katha Up. says

1-II-10. I know that the treasure is impermanent, for that which is constant cannot be reached by things which are not constant.

Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad


Chapter 4 of Tejo Bindu Upanishad is dedicated to Jivan mukta and Videha mukta

Jivan Mukta

Kumara asked the great Lord: “Please explain to me the nature of Jivanmukti (embodied salvation) and Videhamukti (disembodied salvation).” To which the great Shiva replied:

1. “I am Chidatma. I am Para-Atma. I am the Nirguna, greater than the great. One who will simply stay in Atman is called a Jivanmukta.

2. He who realises: ‘I am beyond the three bodies, I am the pure consciousness and I am Brahman’, is said to be a Jivanmukta.

3. He is said to be a Jivanmukta, who realises: ‘I am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss, and I have neither body nor any other thing except the certitude ‘I am Brahman’ only.

4-6. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who has not at all got the ‘I’ in myself, but who stays in Chinmatra (absolute consciousness) alone, whose interior is consciousness alone, who is only of the nature of Chinmatra, whose Atman is of the nature of the all-full, who has Atman left over in all, who is devoted to bliss, who is undifferentiated, who is all-full of the nature of consciousness, whose Atman is of the nature of pure consciousness, who has given up all affinities (for objects), who has unconditioned bliss, whose Atman is tranquil, who has got no other thought (than Itself) and who is devoid of the thought of the existence of anything.

7-11(a). He is said to be a Jivanmukta who realises: ‘I have no Chitta, no Buddhi, no Ahamkara, no sense, no body at any time, no Pranas, no Maya, no passion and no anger, I am the great, I have nothing of these objects or of the world and I have no sin, no characteristics, no eye, no Manas, no ear, no nose, no tongue, no hand, no waking, no dreaming, or causal state in the least or the fourth state.’

11(b)-30(a). He is said to be a Jivanmukta, who realises: ‘All this is not mind, I have no time, no space, no object, no thought, no Snana (bathing), no Sandhyas( junction-period ceremonies), no deity, no place, no sacred places, no worship, no spiritual wisdom, no seat, no relative, no birth, no speech, no wealth, no virtue, no vice, no duty, no auspiciousness, no Jiva, not even the three worlds, no salvation, no duality, no Vedas, no mandatory rules, no proximity, no distance, no knowledge, no secrecy, no Guru, no disciple, no diminution, no excess, no Brahma, no Vishnu, no Rudra, no moon, no earth, no water, no Vayu, no Akasa, no Agni, no clan, no Lakshya (object aimed at), no mundane existence, no meditator, no object of meditation, no Mans, no cold, no heat, no thirst, no hunger, no friend, no foe, no illusion, no victory, no past, present, or future, no quarters, nothing to be said or heard in the least, nothing to be gone to (or attained), nothing to be contemplated, enjoyed or remembered, no enjoyment, no desire, no Yoga, no absorption, no garrulity, no quietude, no bondage, no love, no joy, no instant joy, no hugeness, no smallness, neither length nor shortness, neither increase nor decrease, neither Adhyaropa (illusory attribution) nor Apavada (withdrawal of that conception) , no oneness, no manyness, no blindness, no dullness, no skill, no flesh, no blood, no lymph, no skin, no marrow, no bone, no skin, none of the seven Dhatus, no whiteness, no redness, no blueness, no heat, no gain, neither importance nor non-importance, no delusion, no perseverance, no mystery, no race, nothing to be abandoned or received, nothing to be laughed at, no policy, no religious vow, no fault, no bewailments, no happiness, neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable, no Self, nothing belonging to you or to me, neither you nor I, and neither old age nor youth nor manhood; but I am certainly Brahman. ‘I am certainly Brahman. I am Chit, I am Chit’.

30(b)-31. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who cognises: ‘I am Brahman alone, I am Chit alone, I am the supreme’. No doubt need be entertained about this; ‘I am Hamsa itself, I remain of my own will, I can see myself through myself, I reign happy in the kingdom of Atman and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Atman’.

32. He is a Jivanmukta who is himself, the foremost and the one undaunted person who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self.

Videha Mukta

33. He is a Videhamukta who has become Brahman, whose Atman has attained quiescence, who is of the nature of Brahmic bliss, who is happy, who is of a pure nature and who is a great Mouni (observer of silence).

34-37. He is a Videhamukta who remains in Chinmatra alone without (even) thinking thus: ‘I am all Atman, the Atman that is equal (or the same) in all, the pure, without one, the non-dual, the all, the self only, the birthless and the deathless – I am myself the undecaying Atman that is the object aimed at, the sporting, the silent, the blissful, the beloved and the bondless salvation – I am Brahman alone – I am Chit alone’.

38. He is a Videhamukta who having abandoned the thought: ‘I alone am the Brahman’ is filled with bliss.

39-47(a). He is a Videhamukta who having given up the certainty of the existence or non-existence of all objects is pure Chidananda (the consciousness-bliss), who having abandoned (the thought): ‘I am Brahman’ (or) ‘I am not Brahman’ does not mingle his Atman with anything, anywhere or at any time, who is ever silent with the silence of Satya, who does nothing, who has gone beyond Gunas, whose Atman has become the All, the great and the purifier of the elements, who does not cognise the change of time, matter, place, himself or other differences, who does not see (the difference of) ‘I’, ‘thou’, ‘this’, or ‘that’, who being of the nature of time is yet without it, whose Atman is void, subtle and universal, but yet without (them), whose Atman is divine and yet without Devas, whose Atman is measurable and yet without measure, whose Atman is without inertness and within every one, whose Atman is devoid of any Sankalpa, who thinks always: ‘I am Chinmatra, I am simply Paramatman, I am only of the nature of spiritual wisdom, I am only of the nature of Sat, I am afraid of nothing in this world’, and who is without the conception of Devas, Vedas and sciences, ‘All this is consciousness, etc.,’ and regards all as void.

47(b)-48. He is a Videhamukta who has realised himself to be Chaitanya alone, who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden of his own Atman, whose Atman is of an illimitable nature, who is without conception of the small and the great and who is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss.

49-53(a). He is a Videhamukta whose Atman is nameless and formless, who is the great spiritual wisdom of the nature of bliss and of the nature of the state beyond Turya, who is neither auspicious nor inauspicious, who has Yoga as his Atman, whose Atman is associated with Yoga, who is free from bondage or freedom, without Guna or non-Guna, without space, time, etc., without the witnessable and the witness, without the small or the great and without the cognition of the universe or even the cognition of the nature of Brahman, but who finds his spiritual effulgence in his own nature, who finds bliss in himself, whose bliss is beyond the scope of words and mind and whose thought is beyond the beyond.

53(b)-54. He is said to be a Videhamukta who has gone beyond (or mastered quite) the modifications of Chitta, who illumines such modifications and whose Atman is without any modifications at all. In that case, he is neither embodied nor disembodied. If such a thought is entertained (even), for a moment, then he is surrounded (in thought) by all.

55-62. He is a Videhamukta whose external Atman invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at the highest Vedanta, who drinks of the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine, who is devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who is immersed in that juice, who has the beneficent worship of the Brahmic bliss, who is not satiated with the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who realises Brahmic bliss, who cognises the Shiva bliss in Brahmic bliss, who has the effulgence of the essence of Brahmic bliss, who has become one with it, who lives in the household of Brahmic bliss, has mounted the car of Brahmic bliss, who has an imponderable Chit being one with it, who is supporting (all), being full of it, who associates with me having it, who stays in Atman having that bliss and who thinks: ‘All this is of the nature of Atman, there is nothing else beside Atman, all is Atman, I am Atman, the great Atman, the supreme Atman and Atman of the form of bliss’.

63-68(a). He who thinks: ‘My nature is full, I am the great Atman, I am the all-contented and the permanent Atman. I am the Atman pervading the heart of all, which is not stained by anything, but which has no Atman; I am the Atman whose nature is changeless, I am the quiescent Atman; and I am the many Atman’. He who does not think this is Jivatma and that is Paramatma, whose Atman is of the nature of the emancipated and the non-emancipated, but without emancipation or bondage, whose Atman is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one, but without duality and non-duality; whose Atman is of the nature of the All and the non-All, but without them; whose Atman is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects obtained and enjoyed, but without it; and who is devoid of any Sankalpa – such a man is a Videhamukta.

68(b)-79. He whose Atman is partless, stainless, enlightened, Purusha, without bliss, etc., of the nature of the nectar, of the nature of the three periods of time, but without them; whose Atman is entire and non-measurable, being subject to proof though without proof; whose Atman is the eternal and the witness, but without eternality and witness; whose Atman is of the nature of the secondless, who is the self-shining one without a second, whose Atman cannot be measured by Vidya and Avidya but without them; whose Atman is without conditionedness or unconditionedness, who is without this or the higher worlds, whose Atman is without the six things beginning with Sama, who is without the qualifications of the aspirant after salvation, whose Atman is without gross, subtle, causal and the fourth bodies and without the Anna, Prana, Manas and Vijnana sheaths; whose Atman is of the nature of Ananda (bliss) sheath, but without five sheaths; whose Atman is of the nature of Nirvikalpa, is devoid of Sankalpa, without the characteristics of the visible or the audible and of the nature of void, owing to unceasing Samadhi, who is without beginning, middle, or end; whose Atman is devoid of the word Prajnana, who is without the idea ‘I am Brahman’, whose Atman is devoid (of the thought) of ‘thou art’, who is without the thought ‘this is Atman’, whose Atman is devoid of that which is described by Om, who is above the reach of any speech or the three states and is the indestructible and the Chidatma, whose Atman is not the one which can be known by Atman and whose Atman has neither light nor darkness. Such a personage is a Videhamukta.

80-81. Look only upon Atman; know It as your own. Enjoy your Atman yourself and stay in peace. O six-faced one, be content in your own Atman, be wandering in your own Atman and be enjoying your own Atman. Then you will attain Videhamukti”.

Thus ends the fourth chapter.


adhyAropa apavAda in tejo bindu upanishad



11(b)-30(a). He is said to be a Jivanmukta, who realises: ‘All this is not mind, I have no time, no space, no object, no thought, no Snana (bathing), no Sandhyas( junction-period ceremonies), no deity, no place, no sacred places, no worship, no spiritual wisdom, no seat, no relative, no birth, no speech, no wealth, no virtue, no vice, no duty, no auspiciousness, no Jiva, not even the three worlds, no salvation, no duality, no Vedas, no mandatory rules, no proximity, no distance, no knowledge, no secrecy, no Guru, no disciple, no diminution, no excess, no Brahma, no Vishnu, no Rudra, no moon, no earth, no water, no Vayu, no Akasa, no Agni, no clan, no Lakshya (object aimed at), no mundane existence, no meditator, no object of meditation, no Mans, no cold, no heat, no thirst, no hunger, no friend, no foe, no illusion, no victory, no past, present, or future, no quarters, nothing to be said or heard in the least, nothing to be gone to (or attained), nothing to be contemplated, enjoyed or remembered, no enjoyment, no desire, no Yoga, no absorption, no garrulity, no quietude, no bondage, no love, no joy, no instant joy, no hugeness, no smallness, neither length nor shortness, neither increase nor decrease, neither Adhyaropa (illusory attribution) nor Apavada (withdrawal of that conception) , no oneness, no manyness, no blindness, no dullness, no skill, no flesh, no blood, no lymph, no skin, no marrow, no bone, no skin, none of the seven Dhatus, no whiteness, no redness, no blueness, no heat, no gain, neither importance nor non-importance, no delusion, no perseverance, no mystery, no race, nothing to be abandoned or received, nothing to be laughed at, no policy, no religious vow, no fault, no bewailments, no happiness, neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable, no Self, nothing belonging to you or to me, neither you nor I, and neither old age nor youth nor manhood; but I am certainly Brahman. ‘I am certainly Brahman. I am Chit, I am Chit’.


Jiva is destroyed



Jiva is renounced


KG 1.23-24: I take such devotees across death who, having renounced all others, this world, the other world, the jiva-hood that goes from this world to the other, the body, and all that relates to it like prosperity, animals, and houses, worship Me alone of universal form with single pointed devotion - Kapila Gita 1.23-24


Jiva is destroyed - Nirvikalp Samadhi

KG 3.13: Due to the elemination of jIva-hood, and the mind firmly abiding in th Reality, the Lord, who is the support of all jIva-s, her allictions were destroyed and she attained total peace.
KG 2.14: As her mind remained absorbed in the Truth, she transcended the delusion of the qualities of prakriti and, at that time, did not even remember her body like the one who awakes (does not remember) objects seen in the dream.

Concepts on puruSa


PuruSa was attribuless before creation


KG 2.3: Before creation, the PuruSa was the beginningless Self, attributeless, beyond prakriti, the very subject and Self-shining, and even now it alone pervades the world - Kapila Gita 2.3


Swami Tejomayananda further explains the meaning of AtmA (Self) from viShNu purANa as -

AtmA is that which pervades (the universe), takes back (the universe at the time of dissolution), enjoys (as the illuminator or experiencer of) objects here (in the world), and has eternal existence.


PuruSa manifested as Prakriti


KG 2.4: The same infinite Lord, by chance alone, in sport, became manifested as the subtle prakriti with qualities. Kapila Gita 2.4
KG 2.5: Prakriti with its qualities creates a variety of being like itlsef. The Lord/Self having seen the creation got (as it were) completely deluded through the veiling of knowledge. - Kapila Gita 2.5


PuruSa does not get affected by prakriti


KG 2.9: The puruSa, even though dwelling in prakriti, does not get affected by the qualities of prakriti, as he is immutable, non-doer, and attributeless like the sun in water. - Kapila Gita 2.9

nirvikalp samAdhi in bhAgavat purANa



How can there be freedom in the presence of qualities of Prakriti?

DevAhuti, has doubts as how can one get rid of prakriti

KG 2.14: O Lord! What if the prakriti does not leave the puruSa due to mutual interdependence and eternal coexistence?

Devahuti gives an example to support her point.

KG 2.15: Just as smell cannot exist without earth, sapidity without water, in the same way there is mutual dependence and coexistence of the mind (prakriti) and the Supreme (puruSa)
KG 2.16: Therefore, how can there be freedom in the presence of the qualities of prakriti? (For prakriti) causes the bondage in action to the puruSa who is a non-doer.

Finally, devahuti concludes

KG: 2.17: Sometimes, by the discrimination of truth, the terrible fear (on bondage) is removed. But since it's cause is not removed, it may come back again.

Reply

Kapila Muni, the Lord replies,

KG 2.18-20: The bondage of puruSa by prakriti is burnt up by spiritual practices performed day and night by prakriti (body-mind) itself, like the fuel by the fire in the cup of the araNi. The practices are causeless ("choiceless) performance of one's duties, purity of mind, intense devotion to Me, nourished by constant listening, knowledge with clear vision of Truth, strong dispassion, intense meditation accompanied by austerity, and absorption of the mind.

jIva does not get deluded when -

KG 2.21: That prakriti which has been completely enjoyed, then discarded, whose evil effects are seen constantly, can cause no harm to one who abides in the glory of one's own Self.

The above statement is explained further with the help of example.

KG: 2.22: Just as a dream causes a lot of sorrow to one who has not awaken, but the same does not delude one who has woken up.

A person when asleep dreams and takes a role where he enjoys, suffers but on awakening, he realizes that everything was illusion and not a reality. Further bhagavAn says,

KG 2.23: In the same way, prakriti never harms him  who knows the Truth and who revels in the Self, as his mind is always united with Me.

Earlier, it was said that puruSa was formless and attributeless (without qualities) prior to creation. Our journey too is to go back to this state where there is no one else other than Self.
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