Advaita in Shastras


  1. 1 Four mahAvAkyAs - Jiva Brahma aikya
  2. 2 OM
  3. 3 Advaita in Bhagavad Gita
  4. 4 Brahman in Bhagavad Gita
  5. 5 Neutrality of Ishwara / Brahman in Gita
  6. 6 Bhagavan talks of this world as Mechanical
  7. 7 Bhagavan Krishna explains OM in Bhagavad Gita and Uttara Gita
  8. 8 Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam
  9. 9 Advaita in Bhagavat Purana - Kapila Gita
  10. 10 Advaita in Guru Gita
    1. 10.1 Guru Tatva and Brahman in Guru Gita
    2. 10.2 Glories of Param Guru
    3. 10.3 Guru is above Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva
    4. 10.4 Fruitlessness of sadhana done without the knowledge of Self
    5. 10.5 Shiva, Shakti and Guru are one and same says Guru Gita 
  11. 11 Advaita in Ribhu Gita
  12. 12 Advaita in Other Gitas
    1. 12.1 Advaita in Avadhuta (Avadhoot) Gita
    2. 12.2 Advaita in Sri Rama Gita also called as sruti-sara-sangraha
    3. 12.3 Advaita in Hanumad Gita
    4. 12.4 Advaita in Shiva Gita from Padma Purana
    5. 12.5 Advaita in Uttara Gita
    6. 12.6 Advaita in Anu Gita
    7. 12.7 Advaita in Uddhava Gita
    8. 12.8 Advaita in AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa and tArA gItA
    9. 12.9 Advaita and Ajaata Vaad in Ashtavakra Gita
    10. 12.10 Advaita in Yoga Vasistha
  13. 13 Advaita in 10 (ten) mukhya (major) Upanishads
    1. 13.1 Advaita Vedanta IshAvAsya Upanishad
    2. 13.2 Advaita Vedanta in Kena Upanishad - I may not deny Brahman and Brahman do not deny me.
    3. 13.3 Advaita Vedanta in Katha Upanishad (kathopanishad)
    4. 13.4 Advaita Vedanta in Prashna Upanishad
    5. 13.5 Advaita Vedanta in Mundaka Upanishad
    6. 13.6 Advaita Vedanta in Mandukya Upanishad
    7. 13.7 Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad
    8. 13.8 Advaita Vedanta in Aitareya Upanishad
    9. 13.9 Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad
    10. 13.10 Advaita Vedanta BrihadAraNya Upanishad
  14. 14 Advaita in other Upanishads
    1. 14.1 Svetashvatara Upanishad on Brahman as Ishwara
    2. 14.2 Advaita in Muktika Upanishad (Muktikopanishad)
    3. 14.3 Advaita Vedanta in subAla Upanishad
    4. 14.4 Advaita in nirAlambopaniShad
    5. 14.5 Advaita and Ajaata vAda in tejobindu Upanishad
    6. 14.6 Advaita in Amrit Bindu Upanishad
    7. 14.7 Advaita Vedanta in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad
    8. 14.8 Advaita Vedanta in Brahma Upanishad
    9. 14.9 Advaita Vedanta in Maha Upanishad
    10. 14.10 Advaita Vedanta in MahAnArAyaNa Upanishad
    11. 14.11 Advaita Vedanta in JabAla Upanishad
    12. 14.12 Advaita Vedanta in Mudgala Upanishad
    13. 14.13 Advaita Vedanta in Aruni (Aruneyi) Upanishad
    14. 14.14 Advaita Vedanta in Atma Upanishad
    15. 14.15 Advaita Vedanta in Sarvasara (Sarva-sara) Upanishad
    16. 14.16 Advaita Vedanta in Paramhansa Upanishad
    17. 14.17 Advaita Vedanta in Kaivalya Upanishad
    18. 14.18 Advaita Vedanta in AdhyAtma Upanishad
    19. 14.19 Advaita Vedanta in Atma Bodh Upanishad
    20. 14.20 Advaita Vedanta in SarasvatI hradaya Upanishad
    21. 14.21 Advaita Vedanta in Yog Tatva Upanishad
    22. 14.22 Advaita Vedanta in NirvANa Upanishad
  15. 15 Conclusion
  16. 16 A request to respected readers
  17. 17 A request to Indians
  18. 18 A Humble Request: Adopt Nahi Ninda Nyaya
Four mahAvAkyAs - Jiva Brahma aikya

There are many mahavakyas indicating jiva-brahma aikya and there are 100's of mahavakyas, but 4 mahavakyas selected from 4 vedas. 

The four mahAvAkyA (mahaavaakyaas) of 4 vedas are

1. प्रज्ञानम् ब्रह्म Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) - Rig Veda, Aitreya Upanishad 3.3

2. अहं ब्रह्मास्मि Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) - Yajur Veda, bruhadAraNyaka (BrihadAraNyaka) Upanishad - 1.4.10

3. तत्वमसि Tattvamasi (That thou art) - Sama Veda, Chandogya Upanishad - 6.8.7

4. अयमात्मा ब्रह्म Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) - Atharva Veda, Mandukya Upanishad 2 or 1.2 in Gaudpada Karika)

These 4 mahavakyas talk about the unity and oneness Atman (Jiva) and brahman.

paingala upanishad which is cited by Adi Sankara., lists 4 mahAvAkya-s.

अथ हैनं पैङ्गलः प्रपच्छ याज्ञवल्क्यं महावाक्यविवरणमनुब्रूहीति . 
स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यस्तत्त्वमसि त्वं तदसि त्वं ब्रह्मास्यहं ब्रह्मास्मीत्यनुसन्धानं कुर्यात् . 

III-1-2. Then Paingala said to Yajnavalkya: Set forth the explanation of the major text(s) [Maha-vakyas]. 
Yajnavalkya replied: Thou art That; Thou That art; Thou Brahman art; I am Brahman – One should meditate thus.

More mahAvAkyas

Each Upanishad has it's own mahavakyas, but only few are popular.

5. ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya - nirAlambopaniShada - 28 (Niraalamba Upanishad - 28)

Brahman (the Absolute) is alone real; this world is unreal; the Jiva or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman.

6. सर्वं खल्व् इदं ब्रह्म Sarvam Khau-idam Brahma - Sama Veda, Chandogya Upanishad 3.14.1)

Everything 'else' is (also) brahman OR
All this is Brahman

7. नेह नानाऽस्ति किं चन।neha nānāsti kiñcana (There is nothing else anywhere) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.19

Many people only consider evidences from prasthAntraiyI. Upon searching on net, you will find many websites and blogs dedicated to showing evidence of Advaita n Shastras. Apart from Gita and Major Upanishads, I have covered many smritis and minor upanishads to support authenticity of Advaita. No upanishads are unimportant, major or minor does not make any difference. In the same way, there are about 30 Gitas (smritis), which are essense of purANA-s. Some quotes from Selected Gita-s are taken.

Arjuna asks for the proof of Jiva-Brahma aikya in Uttara Gita


अर्जुन उवाच
ज्ञात्वा स्र्वगतं ब्रह्म सर्वज्ञं पपरमेश्वरम्‌ ।
अहं ब्रह्मोति निर्देष्टुं प्रमाणं तत्र किं भवेत्‌ ॥ १ ॥ 

Arjuna asked: 

1. Realizing the omniscient and omnipotent Brahman as the Supreme Lord by what means of proof can he (the jiva) define himself as 'I am Brahman'?

श्री भगवानुवाच 
यथा जलं जले क्षिप्तं क्षीरे क्षीरं घृते घृतम्‌ ।
अविशेषो भवेत्तद्वज्जीवात्मपरमात्मनो: ॥ २ ॥ 

Sri Bhagavan said: 

2. As there is no distinction between water mixed with water, milk when mixed with milk, butter mixed with butter, similar is the non-differentiation of the Individual Self (jivatman) with the Supreme Self (paramatman)

Para-Brahma Upanishad does not accept the union of Jiva-Shiva (Supreme Brahman), but talks about Ajaata vaada that only Self (as Para Brahman) exists and sadhaka realizes that Jiva is actually Brahman. There is no duality.

2. The juncture of the individual and supreme consciousness is rejected as there is a tinge of distinction involved in it. (When distinctionlessness alone exists) it is the highest (i.e. Brahman) and there is nothing other than that. (When Self-realization does not result by the study, etc., of the scripture) then one shall resort to the eight-limbed Yoga; this like a flower of a plantain tree (ever rubbing against the stem and attaining the state of a blossom) succeeds (in attaining perfection). That which remains as the source of Indra (Ishvara) is ever awake there, as the source of the Veda (as Parameshvara). Beyond (the bonds of) good and bad, he (the ascetic) is not tainted by (accidental) good or bad actions. This effulgent Being is the (bestower of) favour on other gods (like the god Brahma), the ‘internal check’ of the form of unattached pure consciousness, the Purusha, the Hamsa of the Pranava, the supreme Brahman. It is not the chief Prana (vital breath). The Pranava is the Self (Jiva). (This state of the Jiva) remains as the first effulgent being. How can he who knows thus (the true nature of the Pranava) set forth difference (between the Jiva and Brahman) ? He realizes that the Jiva is Brahman (alone).


OM represents nirAkAra tatva. The importance of OM is evident from the fact that an entire Upanishad Mandukya Upanishad is dedicated to explain OM. OM is connected with Shiva, Vishnu / Krishna, Ganesha and NirguNa Brahman. Almost all Principle Upanishads and many Minor Upanishads describe OM and advice us to meditate on OM. Mahanaraya Upanishad which has many Gayatri mantras of different deities and then eulogizes Vishnu and Rudra also advises us to to renounce all karma kand and meditate on OM. Bhagavan in Gita has accepted OM. There is no deity named OM and so we do not find any temple dedicated to 'deity' OM. Even though OM is connected with Ishvara, it is not found in our glorious history that by mere chanting of OM (and nothing else), one gets darshan of his beloved deity. Infact it is said that adding OM to any mantra increases it's potency.

For Advaitin Vedantins, this proof is more than enough. Nothing more needs to be said.

Advaita in Bhagavad Gita

Bhagavan in Gita (2:55 to 2:59), talks about 4 qualities of sthita prajna. Prajna also means buddhi. The intelligent which is firmly established in Brahman is called sthita prajna (Prajñānam brahma).

प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान्।
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते।।2.55।।

2:55 O Partha, when one fully renounces all the desires that have entered the mind, and remains satisfied in the Self alone by the Self, then he is called a man of steady wisdom ( sthita prajna).

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता।।2.58।।

2.58 And when this one fully withdraws the senses from the objects of the senses, as a tortoise wholly (withdraws) the limbs, then his wisdom remains established.

Bhagavan in Gita says that this world is transient (temporary, impermanent)

मामुपेत्य पुनर्जन्म दुःखालयमशाश्वतम्।
नाप्नुवन्ति महात्मानः संसिद्धिं परमां गताः।।8.15।।

8.15 As a result of reaching Me, the exalted ones who have attained the highest perfection do not get rebirth which is an abode of sorrows and which is impermanent.

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च।।13.17।।

13.17 And the Knowable, though undivided, appears to be existing as divided in all beings, and It is the sustainer of all beings as also the devourer and originator.

Brahman in Bhagavad Gita

Krushna also uses the word Brahman in Gita

संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति।।5.6।।

5.6 But, O mighty-armed one, renunciation is hard to attain without (Karma-) yoga. The meditative man equipped with yoga attains Brahman without delay.

अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमं स्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते।
भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः।।8.3।।

8.3 "Aksharam Brahma Paramam" - The imperishable is Brahman, the Supreme. It is supremely above time, space and causation.

End of any chapter in Gita is: Iti srimad bhagawat Gita su, upnishad su, brahma vidyayam, yog Shastre, Sri Krishna Arjuna Samvade, Atma Sayyam Yogo naama Sastodhyayah.

Similarly many verses alone from Gita can be given. Since is the essence of Upanishads, upanishads will also contain verses on advaita.

Neutrality of Ishwara / Brahman in Gita

नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः।
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः।।5.15।।

5.15 The Omnipresent neither accepts anybody's sin nor even virtue. Knowledge remains covered by ignorance. Thereby the creatures become deluded.


Bhagavan talks of this world as Mechanical

ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति।
भ्रामयन्सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया।।18.61।।

18.61 The Lord dwells in the hearts of all beings, O Arjuna, causing all beings, by His illusive power, to revolve as if mounted on a machine.

Bhagavan Krishna explains OM in Bhagavad Gita and Uttara Gita

Bhagavan in Gita says

रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्ययोः।
प्रणवः सर्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु।।7.8।।

7.8: O son of Kunti, I am the taste of water, I am the effulgence of the moon and the sun; (the letter) Om in all the Vedas, the sound in space, and manhood in men.

Krushna says in Gita that I am OM. Mandukya Upanishad also begins with ‘Hari OM’. all 12 verses explain OM and it’s transcendental nature. 

OM (AUM) represents niraakaara brahman. The chandra bindu refers the fourth turiya state, which bhagavan himself has accepted.

Bhagavan in Uttara Gita says

Chapter I

5. He is called Brahman, who, devoid of all desires, and by the process of Yoga, sits in that state of meditation in which he assimilates his own Self-mantra (Pranava or Aum) with the Hamsa (Paramatma). 

17. The syllable (Aum) with which the Vedas begin, which figures in the middle of the Vedas, and with which the Vedas end, unites Prakrti with its Own Self; but that which is beyond this Prakrti-united-Pranava is Mahesvara.


48. It is evident that the letters are pronounced by means of the teeth, lips, palate, throat, etc.; therefore how can they (letters) be termed indestructible (Nitya), when their destructibility is apparent on their very face? 


49. That letter is called indestructible which is self-pronunciation, i.e., without the effort of any pronunciation, which is neither vowel nor consonant, which is beyond the eight places of pronunciation, which is not subject to long or short accents, and which is thoroughly devoid of the Usma Varnas (i.e, the four letters, S’a, Sa, Sa, Ha, called Usma on account of their pronunciation depending greatly on the help of Vayu or air – meaning, therefore, subject to no air or breath).

6. For the human being, the attainment of the state of Hamsa (I am He), within his own limits, is considered the highest jnana. That which remains merely a passive witness between the Hamsa and Non-Hamsa, i.e., the Paramatman and the destructible portion of the human being, is the Aksara Purusa in the form of Kutasha-Caitanya (Atma-Buddhi). When the knower finds and sees this Akara Purusa in him, he is saved from all future troubles of birth and death in this world.

Also note that OM is mentioned in Mandukya and Prasna Upanishad, which is quoted later.

Krishna talks about Advaita and Maya in Srimad Bhagavatam

There are verses in which Krushna says about prakruti (maya) and talks about his transcendental nature in chapter 7 beginning verses (7:1 - 7:15) and says that one can attain it not by just reading shastras but by meditating on me i.e. Through direct experience. Krushna also says that Maya is his illusionary power. Krushna also says that maya is a-sat (not -real = false, i.e. with no real existence in Srimad Bhagavatam 10:14.22

tasmād idaḿ jagad aśeṣam asat-svarūpaḿ
svapnābham asta-dhiṣaṇaḿ puru-duḥkha-duḥkham
tvayy eva nitya-sukha-bodha-tanāv anante
māyāta udyad api yat sad ivāvabhāti

Therefore this entire universe, which like a dream is by nature unreal, nevertheless appears real, and thus it covers one's consciousness and assails one with repeated miseries. This universe appears real because it is manifested by the potency of illusion emanating from You, whose unlimited transcendental forms are full of eternal happiness and knowledge.


In the verses pointed above in Gita, Krushna is also talking about mAyA, but the center or the laxyArtha is not mAyA but Brahman. Is Krushna talking about mAyAvAd or BrahmanvAd? Ishwara, who is mAyA-pati (controller or master of mAyA), is always in communion with Brahman as it is the manifestation of this Brahman and can return to it’s nirguna state at will. Even Ishwara has six upAdhis (strength, knowledge, fame, wealth, great beauty and detachment or (sarva-shaktiman, sarvajna, tyaaga, aishvarya, vairagya, Sri). Krushna in Gita does not talk about mAyA, in the sense that it is real or that mAyA is supreme. Brahman or vasudev is always the laxyaartha. In the same way, in advaita, brahman is the laxyartha and mAyA is used to explain why we do not see brahman.

More Verses from Srimad Bhagavatam / Bhagavat Purana of Advaita Nature

SB 10.14.22: Therefore this entire universe, which like a dream is by nature unreal, nevertheless appears real, and thus it covers one's consciousness and assails one with repeated miseries. This universe appears real because it is manifested by the potency of illusion emanating from You, whose unlimited transcendental forms are full of eternal happiness and knowledge.

SB 10.14.23: You are the one Supreme Soul, the primeval Supreme Personality, the Absolute Truth — self-manifested, endless and beginningless. You are eternal and infallible, perfect and complete, without any rival and free from all material designations. Your happiness can never be obstructed, nor have You any connection with material contamination. Indeed, You are the indestructible nectar of immortality.

SB 10.14.24: Those who have received the clear vision of knowledge from the sunlike spiritual master can see You in this way, as the very Soul of all souls, the Supersoul of everyone's own self. Thus understanding Your original personality, they are able to cross over the ocean of illusory material existence.

SB 10.14.25: A person who mistakes a rope for a snake becomes fearful, but he then gives up his fear upon realizing that the so-called snake does not exist. Similarly, for those who fail to recognize You as the Supreme Soul of all souls, the expansive illusory material existence arises, but knowledge of You at once causes it to subside.

SB 10.14.26: The conception of material bondage and the conception of liberation are both manifestations of ignorance. Being outside the scope of true knowledge, they cease to exist when one correctly understands that the pure spirit soul is distinct from matter and always fully conscious. At that time bondage and liberation no longer have any significance, just as day and night have no significance from the perspective of the sun.

SB 10.14.27: Just see the foolishness of those ignorant persons who consider You to be some separated manifestation of illusion and who consider the self, which is actually You, to be something else, the material body. Such fools conclude that the supreme soul is to be searched for somewhere outside Your supreme personality.

SB 10.14.28: O unlimited Lord, the saintly devotees seek You out within their own bodies by rejecting everything separate from You. Indeed, how can discriminating persons appreciate the real nature of a rope lying before them until they refute the illusion that it is a snake.


More verses

BP 1.2.11: tatvavetta-s (the knowers of truth), calls advaita-GYAna as tatva. Some call this tatva as brahma, some paramAtmA or some 'bhagavAna'.

bhAgavat purANa says,

BP 3.32.26: GYAnamAtra para.m brahma
BP 3.32.28: GYAnameka.m parAcInairindriyairbrahma nirguNa.m 

Translation of full verses:

BP 3.32.26: It is GYAna that is pra-brahma, parameSvara / paramAtma, Isvara, puruSa; the same bhagavAn is himself jIva, SarIra, viShaya-s, senses, etc that is manifested is different forms.

BP 3.32.28: Gyana i.e. Brahman is one [without a second], it is nirguNa, but still, due to extrovert senses, this brahman, due to illusion, it is experienced (Abhasa) in the form of different forms / objects (vibhinna padArtha-s) of the nature of word (Sabda), etc 

i.e. the one, without the second the Brahman, which is knowledge, due to extrovert senses and due to illusion, is experienced in different forms or objects which can be known by the 5 senses via qualities like words (Sabda), etc. Here Sabda means speech. Sabda represents all 5 senses and their GYAnedriya-s like 

Sabda (words) → ears
rUpa (form) → eyes
rasa (taste) → tongue
sparSa (touch) → skin and
gandha (smell) → nose

In other words, Brahman, the one without a second, though nirguNa, i.e. without guNa-s (attributes, beyond sattva, rajas and tamas), and so inconceivable is wrongly conceived with the help of mind and 5 senses and GYAnendriya-s, due to extrovert senses (extrovert mind).

Non Duality in Bhagavat Purana

BP 11.10.32: There is multiplicity of atma so long as there is inequality among the three Gunas and while this multiplicity of atma doesn't get vanished from the mind , the Jeeva remains in bondage forever. 


BP 11.10.32: As long as atman experiences separate existence among three gunas, atman will have to take birth in many forms. As long as there is dependence on these gunas i.e. atman keeps experiencing this multiplicity of 3 gunas,  it will remain in bondage of three gunas. – BP 11.10.32

Likewise, there is a character in Srimad Bhagavat called Jada Bharat, who lived an advaita life.

Advaita in Bhagavat Purana - Kapila Gita

Bhagavat Purana has many sloka-s that support advaita. In the 3rd skandha, there is a discussion between mother devAhuti, a disciple, and her son, Lord Kapila Muni, Guru. We have listed a few verses here.

Advaita devotees never perish

KG 1.22: Those for whom I am the supreme beloved, the Self, son, friend, Guru, well-wisher, and dear Lord (ISTa deva); and who meditate on My peaceful form, never perish as unwinking time has no power over them. Kapila Gita 1.22

Jiva is renounced

KG 1.23-24: I take such devotees across death who, having renounced all others, this world, the other world, the jiva-hood that goes from this world to the other, the body, and all that relates to it like prosperity, animals, and houses, worship Me alone of universal form with single pointed devotion - Kapila Gita 1.23-24

Jiva is destroyed - Nirvikalp Samadhi

KG 3.13: Due to the elemination of jIva-hood, and the mind firmly abiding in th Reality, the Lord, who is the support of all jIva-s, her allictions were destroyed and she attained total peace.
KG 2.14: As her mind remained absorbed in the Truth, she transcended the delusion of the qualities of prakriti and, at that time, did not even remember her body like the one who awakes (does not remember) objects seen in the dream.

PuruSa was attribuless before creation

KG 2.3: Before creation, the PuruSa was the beginningless Self, attributeless, beyond prakriti, the very subject and Self-shining, and even now it alone pervades the world - Kapila Gita 2.3

Swami Tejomayananda further explains the meaning of AtmA (Self) from viShNu purANa as -

AtmA is that which pervades (the universe), takes back (the universe at the time of dissolution), enjoys (as the illuminator or experiencer of) objects here (in the world), and has eternal existence.

PuruSa manifested as Prakriti

KG 2.4: The same infinite Lord, by chance alone, in sport, became manifested as the subtle prakriti with qualities. Kapila Gita 2.4
KG 2.5: Prakriti with its qualities creates a variety of being like itlsef. The Lord/Self having seen the creation got (as it were) completely deluded through the veiling of knowledge. - Kapila Gita 2.5

PuruSa does not get affected by prakriti

KG 2.9: The puruSa, even though dwelling in prakriti, does not get affected by the qualities of prakriti, as he is immutable, non-doer, and attributeless like the sun in water. - Kapila Gita 2.9

Objects do not exist in reality

KG 2.12 Indeed, even though objects do not exist really, the samsAra does not seem to end. Just as one who broads on objects meets with disaster alone, even in the dream. Kapila Gita 2.12

How can there be freedom in the presence of qualities of Prakriti?

DevAhuti, has doubts as how can one get rid of prakriti

KG 2.14: O Lord! What if the prakriti does not leave the puruSa due to mutual interdependence and eternal coexistence?

Devahuti gives an example to support her point.

KG 2.15: Just as smell cannot exist without earth, sapidity without water, in the same way there is mutual dependence and coexistence of the mind (prakriti) and the Supreme (puruSa)
KG 2.16: Therefore, how can there be freedom in the presence of the qualities of prakriti? (For prakriti) causes the bondage in action to the puruSa who is a non-doer.

Finally, devahuti concludes

KG: 2.17: Sometimes, by the discrimination of truth, the terrible fear (on bondage) is removed. But since it's cause is not removed, it may come back again.


Kapila Muni, the Lord replies,

KG 2.18-20: The bondage of puruSa by prakriti is burnt up by spiritual practices performed day and night by prakriti (body-mind) itself, like the fuel by the fire in the cup of the araNi. The practices are causeless ("choiceless) performance of one's duties, purity of mind, intense devotion to Me, nourished by constant listening, knowledge with clear vision of Truth, strong dispassion, intense meditation accompanied by austerity, and absorption of the mind.

jIva does not get deluded when -

KG 2.21: That prakriti which has been completely enjoyed, then discarded, whose evil effects are seen constantly, can cause no harm to one who abides in the glory of one's own Self.

The above statement is explained further with the help of example.

KG: 2.22: Just as a dream causes a lot of sorrow to one who has not awaken, but the same does not delude one who has woken up.

A person when asleep dreams and takes a role where he enjoys, suffers but on awakening, he realizes that everything was illusion and not a reality. Further bhagavAn says,

KG 2.23: In the same way, prakriti never harms him  who knows the Truth and who revels in the Self, as his mind is always united with Me.

Earlier, it was said that puruSa was formless and attributeless (without qualities) prior to creation. Our journey too is to go back to this state where there is no one else other than Self.

Advaita in Guru Gita

To add to it, Guru Gita (part of Skanda PurANA) also talks about the glories of Brahman, who is the Real Guru - Sat-Chit-Ananda Atman, to whom even Lord Shiva salutes. 

Guru Gita talks that Brahman, Guru and Shiva are not different.

Guru Tatva and Brahman in Guru Gita

अचिन्त्याव्यक्तरूपाय निर्गुणाय गुणात्मने |
समस्त जगदाधारमूर्तये ब्रह्मणे नमः||

Prostrations to Brahman, the unthinkable, the unmanifest, beyond the three Gunas(Sattva,Rajas & Tamas qualities of Nature) yet the Self of Gunas, the Substratum behind the whole universe.(1)

वेद्शास्त्रपुराणानि चेतिहासादिकानि च |
मंत्रयंत्रविद्यादिनिमोहनोच्चाटनादिकम् ||

शैवशाक्तागमादिनि ह्यन्ये च बहवो मताः |
अपभ्रंशाः समस्तानां जीवानां भ्रांतचेतसाम् ||

जपस्तपोव्रतं तीर्थं यज्ञो दानं तथैव च |
गुरु तत्वं अविज्ञाय सर्वं व्यर्थं भवेत् प्रिये ||

The Vedas, the Shastras, Puranas, the Itihasas etc., the science of Mantras, Yantras Mohana, Uchatana etc., sects like the Shaiva, Agama, Shakta, etc., and other sects existing in the world today are merely false theories expressed in corrupted words which confuse the ignorant and deluded Jivas. Japa austerities, observances, pilgrimage sacrifice, charity - all these become a mere waste without understanding the Guru Tattva. (19, 20, 21)

गुरुबुध्यात्मनो नान्यत् सत्यं सत्यं वरानने |
तल्लभार्थं प्रयत्नस्तु कर्त्तवयशच मनीषिभिः ||

The Guru is not different from the conscious Self. Without doubt, this is the truth; therefore wise men should make an effort to seek knowledge of Atman from Him. (22)

गूढाविद्या जगन्माया देहशचाज्ञानसम्भवः |
विज्ञानं यत्प्रसादेन गुरुशब्देन कथयते ||

The hidden ignorance, absence of the Knowledge of Self, the world- Maya, the body are all caused by ignorance (Ajnana). By whose grace one attains direct Knowledge of the Self- he is known by the name Guru. (23)

देही ब्रह्म भवेद्यस्मात् त्वत्कृपार्थंवदामि तत् |
सर्वपापविशुद्धात्मा श्रीगुरोः पादसेवनात् ||

Out of compassion for you, I shall tell you how the embodied soul becomes Brahman, having been purified of all sins by serving the feet of the Guru. (24)

नित्यं ब्रह्म निराकारं निर्गुणं बोधयेत् परम् |
भासयन् ब्रह्मभावं च दीपो दीपान्तरं यथा ||

The Guru is one who instructs the disciple about attributeless, eternal Brahman, and there by reveals the Brahmanbhava (feeling of being Brahman) in his heart just like one lamp kindles another lamp is the Guru. (75)

गुरुप्रादतः स्वात्मन्यात्मारामनिरिक्षणात् |
समता मुक्तिमर्गेण स्वात्मज्ञानं प्रवर्तते ||

By steadiness in the path to liberation, by seeing one’s own Self in oneself, by the practice of introspection within and by the Grace of the Guru, the Knowledge of the Self dawns in the Sadhaka. (76)

एक एवाद्वितीयोऽहं गुरुवाक्येन निश्चितः ||
एवमभ्यास्ता नित्यं न सेव्यं वै वनान्तरम् ||

अभ्यासान्निमिषणैव समाधिमधिगच्छति |
आजन्मजनितं पापं तत्क्षणादेव नश्यति ||

On the advice of the Guru, if one meditates with firm determination on the principle of “I am one without duality” need not resort to forest for penances, and the constant practice of the above principle brings about samadhi and his sins are burnt instantaneously. (94 & 95)

तस्मात्सर्वप्रयत्नेन सर्वसंगविवर्जितः |
विहाय शास्त्रजालानि गुरुमेव समाश्रयेत् ||

Therefore discarding all kinds of contacts with people, by all possible means, giving up all conflicts of the scriptures; one should take refuge in the Guru. (103)

तत्वमस्यादिवाक्यानामुपदेष्टा तु पार्वति |
कारणाख्यो गुरुः प्रोक्तो भवरोगनिवारकः ||

The Guru who initiates the disciple into Mahavakya, Tattvamasi (Thou are that) etc. O Parvati, he is called the Karanakhya Guru. He is the remover of the disease of this mundane world. (171)

गुरुनिन्दाकरं दृष्ट्वा धावयेदथ वासयेत् |
स्थानं वा तत्परित्याज्यं जिह्वाच्छेदाक्षमो यदि ||

On seeing a person speaking ill of the Guru, if one is not able to cut his tongue, one should drive out that person from that place. If the person lives there, then one should leave that place. (72)

Glories of Param Guru

मोहादिरहितः शान्तो नित्यतृप्तो निराश्रयः |
तृणीकृतब्रह्मविष्णुवैभवः परमो गुरुः ||

A Param Guru is free from attachment, etc; peaceful, always contented in Himself, independent, and one who considers the status of Brahma and Vishnu like a blade of grass. (180)

सर्वकालविदेशेषु स्वतंत्रो निश्चलस्सुखी |
अखण्डैकरसास्वादतृप्तो हि परमो गुरुः ||

One who is independent at all times and places, who possess an unshakable mind and always blissful, who experiences the homogenous essence of the Self, such a one is the Param Guru. (181)

द्वैताद्वैतविनिर्मुक्तः स्वानुभूतिप्रकाशवान् |
अज्ञानान्धमश्छेत्ता सर्वज्ञ परमो गुरुः ||

One who is free from the feeling of duality and non-duality, who shines by the light of His self-realization, who is able to destroy the deep darkness of ignorance, and is omniscient, He is a Param Guru. (182)

यस्य दर्शनमात्रेण मनसः स्यात् प्रसन्नता |
स्वयं भूयात् धृतिश्शान्तिः स भवेत् परमो गुरुः ||

By whose mere Darshan (look with devotion), one attains calmness, cheerfulness, and peace and steadfastness, and peace of mind, such a one is Param Guru. (183)

स्वशरीरं शवं पश्यन् तथा स्वात्मानमद्वयम् |
यः स्त्रीकनकमोहघ्नः स भवेत् परमो गुरुः ||

One who looks upon his own body as a corpse, and his Self as the non-dual Brahman, and who has killed the infatuation for wealth and women, such a person is a Param Guru. (184)

Guru is above Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva

गुरोः कृपाप्रसादेन ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवादयः |
सामर्थ्यमभजन् सर्वे सृष्टिस्थित्यंतकर्मणि ||

It is by the Guru’s grace and blessings that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva become capable of performing their respective duties- creation, preservation, and dissolution. (213)

Fruitlessness of sadhana done without the knowledge of Self

स्वरूपज्ञानशून्येन कृतमप्यकृतं भवेत् |
तपो जपादिकं देवि सकलं बालजल्पवत् ||

Without the Knowledge of the Self whatever Sadhana is done is fruitless. O Devi, penances,japas, etc., everything becomes like the prattling of a child. (190)

Shiva, Shakti and Guru are one and same says Guru Gita 

मम् रूपासि देवि त्वमतस्तत्कथयामि ते |
लोकोपकारकः प्रश्नो न केनापि कृतः पुरा ||

O Devi, you are my own Self in another form. Therefore I shall narrate this to you. This question of yours will benefit the whole world. No one else has put me this question. (16)

यो गुरु स शिवः प्रोक्तो, यः शिवः स गुरुस्मृतः |
विकल्पं यस्तु कुर्वीत स नरो गुरुतल्पगः ||

He who is the Guru is Shiva Himself, so declare the scriptures, and the fact that Shiva is the Guru, is reminded to us in all the Smritis. He, who makes any distinction between the two, is guilty of the crime of uniting with his own Guru’s wife. (18)

You will find many such verses in Guru Gita that are of Advaita Origin.

Sri Ramakrishna says, Bhakta, Bhagavan and Bhagavat are one and the same. 

Similarly other lesser known Gita's like Rama Gita, Hanumad Gita, Avadhut Gita and Ribhu Gita also talk about supreme Nirguna Brahman.

Yogvasistha and Ashtavakra Gita also talk about Advait and Ajaat vaad (ajati vad)

Advaita in Ribhu Gita

26. If there is duality, there is (a concept of) nonduality; in the absence of duality, there is no (concept of) nonduality either. If there is something to be "seen," a seer is also there; in the absence of anything to see, there is no seer at all either.

27. If there is an interior, there surely is an exterior; if there be no interior, there is also no exterior. If there be (a concept of) completeness, it implies something of incompleteness.

28. If there is a little that can be thought of, it becomes all in no time; if there is not a little--nothing whatsoever of anything at anytime--nothing arises.

29. Therefore, all this does not exist in the least at any time: neither you nor I, neither this nor that. There being only Brahman alone, be of the certitude that there is no non-Self.

Note: Please note that the knowledge referred in an shastras when they are talking about rise above knowledge and ignorance means scriptural knowledge. Hence any such statements like rise beyond duality of knowledge-ignorance, duality-non-duality, etc has to be taken from vyavahaarika (practical) standpoint. The aim is to meditate and realize and not just be contented with the knowledge (information) obtained from scriptures. After certain maturity, when one obtains dhyeya siddhi, one has to just meditate to reach the ultimate state. Shastras and their study has to be dropped, as shastras are just pointers. Having essence of shastras, they are of no more use. Purpose of shastras is fulfilled. Hence they are supposed to be dropped, as they are also aavalamban (support). It means not by mearing scriptures, but by meditating one can rise above duality and enter into infinite non-dual brahman.

These upadeshas are only for matured sadhakas, who have experienced detachment, can live with bare minimum necessities and whose mind does not go in samsaara i.e. it's 100 % introvert. These Upadeshas are not for common masses and beginners. Hence these type of upadeshas are not popular to public. This is the reason why Gita's such as Ribhu Gita, Ashtavakra Gita and Yoga Vasistha are less popular.

For more verses in Ribhu Gita, please visit Brahman / Atman is not Shunya says Ribhu Gita

To know what is Ribhu Gita, please visit wiki and Sivanandaonline.

Caution: Ribhu Gita is not for the masses. 

Advaita in Other Gitas

Following are external links dedicated to Advaita

Advaita in Avadhuta (Avadhoot) Gita

Avadhuta Gita contains many verses of Advaita origin.

Caution: Avadhuta Gita is not for the masses. 

1. By the grace of God the Brahmins above all men are inspired with the disposition to non-duality (unity of the Self with God), which relieves them of the great fear.

2. How can I salute the Self, which is indestructible, which is all Bliss, which in Itself and by Itself pervades everything, and which is inseparable from Itself?

3. I alone am, ever free from all taint. The world exists like a mirage within me. To whom shall I bow?

4. Verily the one Self is all, free from differentiation and non-differentiation. Neither can it be said, "It is" nor "It is not." What a great mystery.

5. This is the whole substance of Vedanta; this is the essence of all knowledge, theoretical and intuitional. I am the Atman, by nature impersonal and all-pervasive.

6. That God who is the Self in all, impersonal and changeless, like unto space, by nature purity itself, verily, verily, that I am.

7. I am pure knowledge, imperishable, infinite. I know neither joy nor pain; whom can they touch?

Advaita in Sri Rama Gita also called as sruti-sara-sangraha

Advaita in Hanumad Gita

“Dear son Hanuman, look at me. I am so pleased with you that I would like to introduce you to ourselves. Listen, Sri Rama is beginning less, endless, eternal, and imperishable. He is inconceivable and indescribable. He is beyond the reach of thought and action.”

Hanumanji looked up and began constantly looking humbly to Sitaji as a child looks at his mother when she is teaching him some important point of life.

“Death, misunderstanding and afflictions do not reach my husband. Therefore, he is indicated as Satchidanandamaya.

“He is motionless, doing nothing he just exists. All that is attributed to him as though he did it are all my creations. They are my performances. Even his appearance in this form has taken place because of me. I am the Yoga Maya.

“I am not outside him. His existence is not possible without me. I am his eternal power. Appearance of this phenomenal world is my luxury, my pleasure. Millions and billions of cosmic universes emanate from me. I am the giver of birth and all creation, the preserver and the nourisher of all good creation, and destroyer of karma, existence and worn out life in them all. The appearance of this mundane world is a vibration in power. And that power I am, as well as the very vibrations themselves. And I am the power of this Sri Rama. Completely non-different from him.

“Imposed by me, upon this Lord of my heart, the Truth, consciousness, and bliss reflect back upon me and I shine as sandhini, samvit, and lhadini. Again, these are potencies of the Lord of mine. Through vibrations of these reflections, I introduce the transcendental worlds of Saketa, Goloka, Vaikuntha, and so on. When the rays of their dazzle travel far below, enveloped by my gross power, they transform as satva, rajas, and tamas. From these comes forth the world. Thus the entire visible, imaginable, conceivable world is my sporty adventure.

“But, I’ve no meaning of me for myself at all, except his love. I have no purpose to exist at all unless and until or as long as this, my beloved, keeps looking at me. The purpose of my existence is to entertain him. I am alive, in appearance only as long as my lord needs me. As soon as he no longer needs me, I submerge into him. I become one with him.” Sitaji said and became quiet. 

Advaita in Shiva Gita from Padma Purana

Shiva Gita is a part of Padma Purana, which is a discourse between Bhagavan Rama as disciple and Bhagavan Shiva as Guru, who is none other than Brahman. If one remembers, it is the same purana  from which a verse is taken to defame Advaita and Adi Shankara. So if Padma Purana is authentic, so is Shiva Gita

Also note that Shiva shows the virATa svarupa to Rama after giving Rama the divine eyes. Shiva showed both duality and non-duality. Shiva is a person (personal deity), creator, preserver and destroyer) and is also NirGuna Brahman. Shiva-tatva i.e. Brahman after associating with mAyA becomes Ishwara.

Please visit the link here. Please refer slokas: 24-25, 29-40

Some verses:

Dvaita: Shiva as a person

Great things do not rest on flimsy support. One single atom cannot support the Vindhyā mountains. This universe rests on Your person through Your māyā alone. I am convinced now about this. 27

Brahman + mAyA, illusionary power of God = Ishwara, lord of the universe.

Just as a fear-causing snake appearing in the rope has not really come into being, nor exists, nor undergoes destruction, similarly is the universe too taking shape in You, through that sheer māyā of Yours, O Nilakaṇṭha. 28

When it is enquired as to Your body assuming the nature of being, the very basis for the world of manifestation, that itself is seen to be certainly due to my ignorance. Thou art wholly the nature of Consciousness and Bliss. 29

Jagat is Brahma svarupa: Sarvam khalu-idam brahma

O Destroyer of Tripura, Thou alone, being praised, bestow upon the enjoyers the fruits of the eminently meritorious acts, performance of Vedic sacrifices and charitable acts. But even this statement is not fully true because there is nothing different from You at all. 30

Thinking of formless God is difficult

The Sages declare those as deluded by ignorance who mistakenly think that Śiva, Lord of the Himālayas, is pleased by external acts of worship and services. How can there be any desire for pleasure for one who is formless? 31

Even fruits of karma are nothing but illusion, as they are all inside mAyA

O Supreme Lord! Even the sovereignty of all the three worlds, You bestow as a reward on those people who offer You a leaf or a little water. I deem it all as the work of ignorance. 32

Jnana-svarupa Atman / Brahman does not die

You pervade all the quarters and the intermediate directions. Thou art the universe, secondless, the infinite and the eternal. Even when this universe become extinct, there is no loss to You, just as there is no detriment to space (within a pot), when the pot is broken. 33

Same Brahman gives light (power) to many minds and mind reflects it as if it it thy own

Just as the one, single Sun in the sky gets its many reflections in various vessels of water, so Thou, O Lord, art (variously) reflected in different minds. 34

The same is said in Sri Ramana Maharshi's 40 verses on reality

22. Atman gives light to the mind and shines within it. Except by turning the mind inward and fixing it in the Divine, there is no other way to know Him through the mind.

6. The world is nothing more than an embodiment of the objects perceived by the five sense-organs. Since, through these five sense-organs, a single mind perceives the world, the world is nothing but the mind. Apart from the mind can there be a world?

Everything including heaven is a dream

There is nothing to be done by You even when the world is created, protected and dissolved. Even then, You bestow heaven etc. on the souls beginninglessly embodied according to their mortal fruits. It all happens as in a dream. 35

Experience is because we are conscious. Consciousness is nothing but Self

O Śambhu! For the two inert bodies, the subtle (sūkṣma) and the gross (sthūla) there could be no consciousness without the Self. Therefore, the scriptures, O enemy of Tripura, speak of pleasure and pain experienced through Your reflection in them. 36

Unity of Dvaita and Advaita

Prostrations to Thee, O Swan in the ocean of Existence and Consciousness; prostrations to Thee, O Blue-Throated One, the very form of Time; prostrations to Thee, the Destroyer of all sins; prostrations to Thee, the one (witness) experiencer of the functions of the mind, which after all is illusory. 37

Shiva Gita ends with the verse which says, Shiva Gita imparts Brahma-vidya

Thus ends the seventh chapter called the Vision of the Cosmic Form in the form of a dialogue between Śiva and Rāma in the Śiva-Gītā an upaniṣad delivering Brahma-vidyā, and a yoga śāstra occurring in the Padma Purāṇa.

Likewise, Chapter 10, jiva-swarupa kathan deals with jiva-brahma aikya i.e. Jiva and Brahman are one and the same.  Chapter 10 consists of  63 slokas.

Advaita in Uttara Gita

Uttara Gita Lord Krishna’s second discourse to Arjuna, Initiation of Arjuna into Yoga and Jnana

5. He is called Brahman, who, devoid of all desires, and by the process of Yoga, sits in that state of meditation in which he assimilates his own Self-mantra (Pranava or Aum) with the Hamsa (Paramatma).

6. For the human being, the attainment of the state of Hamsa (I am He), within his own limits, is considered the highest jnana. That which remains merely a passive witness between the Hamsa and Non-Hamsa, i.e., the Paramatman and the destructible portion of the human being, is the Aksara Purusa in the form of Kutasha-Caitanya (Atma-Buddhi). When the knower finds and sees this Akara Purusa in him, he is saved from all future troubles of birth and death in this world.

7. The word “Kakin” is the compound of ka + aka + in. The first syllable Ka means happiness, the second Aka means misery, and the third In denotes possessing: therefore one that possesses happiness and misery – the Jiva – is called “Kakin”. Again the vowel a at the end of the syllable Ka is the conscious manifestation of Mula-Prakrti or the Jiva form of the Brahman; therefore when this a disappears, there remains only the K, which is the One great indivisible Bliss – Brahman.

10. Such a seeker of Brahman, after fixing his mind as aforesaid, and shutting himself out of all objective knowledge (Ajnana), should hold fast the support of unchangeable Jnana, and think of the One Indivisible Brahman in the inner and outer Akasa, that exists at the end of the nose, and into which the life-breath merges. 

11. Freed from both nostrils where the life-breath disappears, there (i.e., in the heart) fix thy mind, O Partha, [ another name of Arjuna. ] and meditate upon the All-Supreme Isvara.

12. Think of the Siva, there, as devoid of all conditions of life, pure but without lustre (Prabha), mindless, Buddhi-less.

13. The signs of Samadhi are the negation of all positive conditions of life and the complete enthralment or subjugation of all objective thoughts.

14. Although the body of the meditator may now and hen become somewhat unsteady at the time of meditation, yet he is to consider that the Paramatma is immovable. This is the sign of the Samadhi.

15. He that considers the Paramatman as without Matra, i.e., neither short nor long in metre, soundless, unconnected with vowels, and beyond the Bindu, (Point) i.e., Anusvara, (which produces a nasal sound), beyond the Nada, i.e., the voice that rises from the throat, etc., and beyond the Kalas, i.e., the different phases of this sound, is the real knower of the Vedas.

16. He that has acquired Vijnana, (the Supreme Knowledge) by the aid of Jnana, i.e.., the knowledge derived from books of Philosophy and instruction from a Guru, and has learned to place the object of this knowledge in his heart, and he that has acquired peace of mind, such a person requires no Yoga for further practice, and no meditation for further conception.

17. The syllable (Aum) with which the Vedas begin, which figures in the middle of the Vedas, and with which the Vedas end, unites Prakrti with its Own Self; but that which is beyond this Prakrti-united-Pranava is Mahesvara.

18. A boat is necessary until one gets to the other side of the river, but when a man once crosses the stream, the boat is no longer necessary for his purpose.

19. As a husbandman throws away the husks, after thrashing out the corn, so does also an intelligent person give up the study of books after he has attained knowledge from them.

33. He that contemplates the Atman as No-thing above, No-thing below, No-thing in the middle, and No-thing all round, his state is called the state of Samadhi. (That is Niralamba, non-supported or self-supported samadhi) The Yogi who thus realizes the No-thingness of the Atman becomes free from all virtues and vice.


34. Tell me, O Kesava, how Yogis should meditate upon the colourless and formless Brahman, when the mind is unable to think upon that which it has never seen, and that which can be seen is material, and consequently subject to destruction (change)?


35. That which is full above, full below, full in the middle, and full all round, is the All-full Atman and he that contemplates the Atman thus, is said to be in the state of Samadhi.


36. Tell me, O Kesava, how the Yogi is to practise meditation when the Salamba which thou has just described is unreal and that which is Niralamba means No-thingness?


37. He who, after purifying his mind, contemplates the pure Paramatman, and looks unto his own Self as he one vast undivided whole of the manifested universe, becomes happy by knowing the Brahman.


47. O Arjuna, the Akasa is called Sunya (vacuum), because it means the want or absence of things or anything. This Akasa has the quality of Sound, but that which gives it the power of Sound (as emptiness cannot produce any sound), thought Itself Soundless, is the unknown and unknowable Brahman.


50. Tell me, O Krishna, how, by closing their external senses and knowing that Brahman, which lies concealed in every matter and every substance, the Yogins realize Nirvana Mukti (i.e., absolute freedom from every kind of bondage)?


51. The Yogins see the Atman within (them: this they do) when they shut out all their external senses (not by any physical action); for such a person when he leaves his body, his Buddhi [ Students must distinguish between the Vedantic use of this term and the significance assigned to it in the Esoteric Philosophy. ] (i.e. material intelligence) dies away, and with the death of his Buddhi his ignorance also dies away (i.e., he becomes spiritual).

52. As long as the Tattvas are not known to a person, so long it is necessary for him to practise concentration of mind by shutting out external senses, but once the thoroughly attains the knowledge of the Tattvas he identifies himself with the Universal Soul.

53. From the nine openings (portals) of the body, the waters of knowledge always pass out; consequently one cannot know the Brahman unless he becomes as pure as the Brahman Itself. (Meaning, the powers of mind should be concentrated within, and not allowed to dwell upon external objects through the nine openings.)

54. Thy body itself is exceedingly impure, but that which takes a body (Jivatman) is purity itself; he that has known the difference of the real nature of these two never troubles himself with the question of purity; for, whose purity, should he search after? (The Jivatman is always pure.)



1. Tell me, O Keshava, what is the evidence when one, knowing the Brahman as the all-pervading and all-knowing Paramesvara, believes himself to be one with It?


2. As water in water, milk in milk and (clarified) butter in butter, so the Jivatman and Paramatman become one in union without any distinction and difference.

3. He who with undivided attention endeavours to unite the Jivatman with the Paramatman according to the manner prescribed by the Sastras (i.e., Rsis) to him the all-pervading and universal Light shows itself in due time.


4. When, by acquiring knowledge, the knower becomes the object of knowledge itself, then he frees himself from all bondage by the virtue of his knowledge, and what need is there for practice of Yoga or meditation?


5. He, in whom the light of knowledge always shines forth, has his Buddhi constantly fixed on the Brahman, and with the fire of supreme knowledge he is able to burn down the bonds of Karma.

6. Such a knower of the Tattvas, by the realization of the Paramatman that is pure as the spotless Akasa and without a second, lives in it (i.e., Paramatman) without any Upadhi (i.e., being free from all attributes), as water enters into water.

7. Atman is Suksma like Akasa , and therefore it cannot be seen by the eyes, nor can the inner Atman, which is like the Vayu (air) bee seen either; but he who has been able to fix his Inner-Atman by the Niralamba Samadhi, and has learned to direct the course of his external senses inward, can know the unity of the Atman and Antaratman (Inner Soul or Mind).

8. Wherever a Jnanin may die, and in whatever manner his death may happen, he becomes one with Atman when he leases his body, even as the Akasa in the pot becomes one with its parent Akasa when the pot is broken, matters not where nor how it breaks.

9. Know by the process of Anvaya and Vyatireka that the Atman which pervades the whole body is beyond the the three states of consciousness – waking, dreaming and dreamless sleep.

34. The Yogins who contemplate me with one mind as "I am he" are saved from the sins collected during a hundred millions of Kalpas.

35. As the Akasa of the pot is absorbed in the Mahakasa when the pot is broken, so also the ignorance-bound Jivatman is absorbed in the Paramatman when ignorance is destroyed.

36. He who has been able to acquire the knowledge of the Tattvas that the Jivatman is absorbed in the Paramatman, even as the Akasa of the Pot is absorbed in the Mahakasa, becomes undoubtedly free from the chain of ignorance, and goes into the sphere of the Light of Supreme Knowledge and Wisdom.

37. If a man practise asceticism and severe austerity for a thousand years, standing on one leg only, he cannot realize one-sixteenth part of the benefit gained by Dhyana Yoga (meditation).

39. At the time when the body oscillates backward and forward, the Braahmana who hesitates to believe that he is Brahman fails to understand the great subtle Atman, even if he be conversant with the four Vedas.

There are many verses, from Yoga standpoint, which state that Attributeless Brahman is supreme and the last state is non-duality. It also teaches that Jiva merges with Brahman, Atman and becomes one with it.

Chapter III teaches Jiva-Brahma Aikya

Advaita in Anu Gita

Anu Gita Refreshes Teachings of Vedas and Upanishads. It talks about Yog and meditation, final union of Jiva and Brahman

Chapter 4

He who becoming placid, and thinking of naught, may become absorbed in the one receptacle, abandoning each previous (element), he will cross beyond (all) bonds. A man who is a friend of all, who endures all, who is devoted to tranquility, who has subdued his senses, and from whom fear and wrath have departed, and who is self-possessed, is released. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself, who is self-controlled, pure, free from vanity and egoism, he is, indeed, released from everything. And he, too, is released who is equable towards both life and death, and likewise pleasure and pain, and gain and loss, and (what is) agreeable and odious. He who is not attached to any one, who contemns no one, who is free from the pairs of opposites, and whose self is free from affections, he is, indeed, released in every way. He who has no enemy, who has no kinsmen, who has no child, who has abandoned piety, wealth, and lust altogether, and who has no desire, is released. He who is not pious and not impious, who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated, whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the body, and who is free from the pairs of opposites, is released. One who does no action, and who has no desire, looks on this universe as transient, like an Aswattha tree, always full of birth, death., and old age. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects, searching for his own faults, he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. 

Seeing the self void of smell, void of taste, void of touch, void of sound, void of belongings, void of color, and unknowable, he is released. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities, devoid of qualities, devoid of the qualities of the five elements, devoid of form, and having no cause, is released. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental, he gradually obtains tranquility, like fire devoid of fuel. He who is free from all impressions, free from the pairs of opposites, without belongings, and who moves among the collection of organs with penance, he is indeed released. Then freed from all impressions, he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman, tranquil, unmoving, constant, indestructible. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind, than which there is nothing higher, (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). Restraining the senses, one should fix the mind on the self; and having first performed rigorous penance, he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. Then the talented Brâhmana, who has practiced penance, who is constantly practicing concentration of mind, should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind, seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self, then he, being habituated to exclusive meditation, perceives the self in the self.

Being self-restrained and self-possessed, and always concentrating his mind, and having his senses subjugated, he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self, As a person having seen one in a dream, recognizes him (afterwards), saying, ‘This is he;’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. And as one may show the soft fibers, after extracting them from the Muñga, so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. The body is called the Muñga; the soft fibers stand for the self. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated, then there is no ruler over him, since he is the lord of the triple world. He obtains various bodies as he pleases; and casting aside old age and death, he grieves not and exults not. The man who has acquired concentration of mind, and who is self-restrained, creates for himself even the divinity of the gods; and abandoning the transient body, he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman.

When (all) beings are destroyed, he has no fear; when (all) beings are afflicted, he is not afflicted by anything. He whose self is concentrated, who is free from attachment, and of a tranquil mind, is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection, which consist in pain and grief. Weapons do not pierce him; there is, no death for him; nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. Properly concentrating his self, he remains steady to the self; and freed from old age and grief, he sleeps at ease. Leaving this human frame, he assumes bodies at pleasure. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self, then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself.

Final Emancipation (Liberation):

Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self, he attains in a short time to that Brahman, after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. He is not to be grasped by the eye, nor by any of the senses. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. He has hands and feet on all sides; he has eyes, heads, and faces on all sides; he has cars on all sides; he stands pervading everything in the world. The soul sees the self come out from the body; and abandoning his body, he perceives the self,–holding it to be the immaculate Brahman,–with, as it were, a mental smile. And then depending upon it thus, he attains final emancipation in me.

This whole mystery I have declared to you, O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave, I will go away; and do you (too) go away, O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure.’ Thus addressed by me, O Krishna! that pupil, possessed of great penance,–that Brâhmana of rigid vows,–went away as he pleased.

Advaita in Uddhava Gita

Uddhava Gita is the Final Teachings of Lord Krishna to his faithful disciple Uddhava.

47. Naked sages who seriously endeavor in spiritual practice, who have raised their semen upward, who are peaceful and sinless members of the renounced order, attain the spiritual abode called Brahman.

6. Now you should completely give up all attachment to your personal friends and relatives and fix your mind on Me. Thus being always conscious of Me, you should observe all things with equal vision and wander throughout the earth.

7. My dear Uddhava, the material universe that you perceive through your mind, speech, eyes, ears and other senses is an illusory creation that one imagines to be real due to the influence of maya. In fact, you should know that all of the objects of the material senses are temporary.

8. One whose consciousness is bewildered by illusion perceives many differences in value and meaning among material objects. Thus one engages constantly on the platform of material good and evil and is bound by such conceptions. Absorbed in material duality, such a person contemplates the performance of compulsory duties, nonperformance of such duties and performance of forbidden activities.

10. Being fully endowed with conclusive knowledge of the Vedas and having realized the ultimate purpose of such knowledge in practice, you will be able to perceive the pure self, and thus your mind will be satisfied. At that time you will become dear to all living beings, headed by the demigods, and you will never be hampered by any disturbance in life.

11. One who has transcended material good and evil automatically acts in accordance with religious injunctions and avoids forbidden activities. The self-realized person does this spontaneously, like an innocent child, and not because he is thinking in terms of material good and evil.


Chapter 27 - Lord Krsna’s Instructions on the Process of Deity Worship 

1. Sri Uddhava said: My dear Lord, O master of the devotees, please explain to me the prescribed method of worshiping You in Your Deity form. What are the qualifications of those devotees who worship the Deity, on what basis is such worship established, and what is the specific method of worship? 

2. All the great sages repeatedly declare that such worship brings the greatest benefit possible in human life. This is the opinion of Narada Muni, the great Vyasadeva and my own spiritual master, Brhaspati.

5. O lotus-eyed one, O Supreme Lord of all lords of the universe, please explain to Your devoted servant this means of liberation from the bondage of work.

Chapter Twenty-Eight Jnana-yoga

1. The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: One should neither praise nor criticize the conditioned nature and activities of other persons. Rather, one should see this world as simply the combination of material nature and the enjoying souls, all based on the one Absolute Truth.

2. Whoever indulges in praising or criticizing the qualities and behavior of others will quickly become deviated from his own best interest by his entanglement in illusory dualities. 

3. Just as the embodied spirit soul loses external consciousness when his senses are overcome by the illusion of dreaming or the deathlike state of deep sleep, so a person experiencing material duality must encounter illusion and death. 

4. That which is expressed by material words or meditated upon by the material mind is not ultimate truth. What, therefore, is actually good or bad within this insubstantial world of duality, and how can the extent of such good and bad be measured?

8. One who has properly understood the process of becoming firmly fixed in theoretical and realized knowledge, as described herein by Me, does not indulge in material criticism or praise. Like the sun, he wanders freely throughout this world.

9. By direct perception, logical deduction, scriptural testimony and personal realization, one should know that this world has a beginning and an end and so is not the ultimate reality. Thus one should live in this world without attachment. 

10. Sri Uddhava said: My dear Lord, it is not possible for this material existence to be the experience of either the soul, who is the seer, or of the body, which is the seen object. On the one hand, the spirit soul is innately endowed with perfect knowledge, and on the other hand, the material body is not a conscious, living entity. To whom, then, does this experience of material existence pertain? 

11. The spirit soul is inexhaustible, transcendental, pure, self-luminous and never covered by anything material. It is like fire. But the nonliving material body, like firewood, is dull and unaware. So in this world, who is it that actually undergoes the experience of material life?

19. Gold alone is present before its manufacture into gold products, the gold alone remains after the products’ destruction, and the gold alone is the essential reality while it is being utilized under various designations. Similarly, I alone exist before the creation of this universe, after its destruction and during its maintenance. 

20. The material mind manifests in three phases of consciousness—wakefulness, sleep and deep sleep—which are products of the three modes of nature. The mind further appears in three different roles—the perceiver, the perceived and the regulator of perception. Thus the mind is manifested variously throughout these threefold designations. But it is the fourth factor, existing separately from all this, that alone constitutes the Absolute Truth. 

21. That which did not exist in the past and will not exist in the future also has no existence of its own for the period of its duration, but is only a superficial designation. In My opinion, whatever is created and revealed by something else is ultimately only that other thing. 

Note: It is interesting to note that Uttara Gita, Anu Gita and Uddhav Gita are a part of Srimad Bhagavatam

Advaita in AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa and tArA gItA

AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa is a discourse between rAma and laxmaNa

vikalpa mAyArahitE chidAtmakE *ahaMkAra* Esha prathamaH prakalpitaH
*adhyAsa* EvAtmani sarvakAraNE nirAmayE brahmaNi kEvalE parE 

 The brahma vastu is free from all the vikalpAs and mAyA. It is of the form of *chit*. The prathama-prakalpa in the form of *ahaM* which is superimposed on this vikalpa-rahita (changeless) brahma vastu is called *adhyAsa*. And all this tamAsha (drama) is being displayed by this ahaM only.

In AdhyAtma rAmAyaNa shrI rAma says that this world is and illusion and is seen because of eho only. The only truth is the supreme (param) nirAkAra brahman (nirAmayE brahmaNi kEvalE parE), which free from delusion.

tArA gItA

mithyAropitasaMsAro na svayaM vinivartate |
viShayA dhyAyamAnasya svapne mithyAgamo yathA ||

This saMsAra is falsely superimposed (on the Self) and does not go away on its own for a person who broods over the objects of the senses. This samsAra is just like a dream which too does not end on its own (but ends when one wakes up.)

anAdyavidyAsaMbandhAttatkAryAhaMkR^itestathA |
saMsAro .apArthako .api syAdrAgadveShAdisaN^kulaH ||

By the relation (association) with beginningless avidyA (ajnAna, ignorance) and with the effect of avidyA - ahaMkAra (ego), the saMsAra, characterized by attractions and aversions, exists even though it is meaningless.

Advaita and Ajaata Vaad in Ashtavakra Gita

Chapter 1

9. Burn down the forest of ignorance with the fire of understanding. Know ‘I am the one pure awareness.’ With such ashes now be happy, free from distress.

10. That in which all this appears is but imagined like the snake in a rope; that joy, supreme knowledge and awareness is what you are; now be happy.

12. Your real nature is one perfect, free, and actionless consciousness, the all-pervading witness – unattached to anything, desireless, at peace. It is illusion that you seem to be involved in any other matter.

13. Meditate on yourself as motionless awareness, free from any dualism, giving up the mistaken idea that you are just a derivative consciousness; anything external or internal is false.

15. You are really unbound and actionless, self-illuminating and spotless already. The cause of your bondage is that you are still resorting to stilling the mind.

16. All of this is really filled by you and strung out in you, for what you consist of is pure awareness – so don’t be small-minded.

17. You are unconditioned and changeless, formless and immovable, unfathomable awareness, imperturbable- such consciousness is unclinging.

18. Recognise that the apparent is unreal, while the unmanifest is abiding. Through this initiation into truth you will escape falling into unreality again.

19. Just as a mirror exists as part and apart from its reflected images, so the Supreme Lord exists as part and apart from this body.

20. Just as one and the same all-pervading space exists within and without a jar, so the eternal, everlasting Being exists in the totality of things.

Chapter 2

Janaka said:

1. Truly I am spotless and at peace, the awareness beyond natural causality. All this time I have been afflicted by delusion.

2. As I alone give light to this body, so do I enlighten the world. As a result the whole world is mine, and, alternatively, nothing is.

3. So now abandoning the body and everything else, suddenly somehow my true self becomes apparent.

4. Just as waves, foam and bubbles are not different from water, so all this which has emanated from oneself, is no other than oneself.

5. Just as cloth when examined is found to be just thread, so when all this is analysed it is found to be no other than oneself.

6. Just as the sugar produced from the juice of the sugarcane is permeated with the same taste, so all this, produced out of me, is completely permeated with me.

7. From ignorance of oneself, the world appears, and by knowledge of oneself it appears no longer. From ignorance of the rope a snake appears, and by knowledge of the rope the snake appears no longer.

8. Shining is my essential nature, and I am nothing over and beyond that. When the world shines forth, it is simply me that is shining forth.

9. All this appears in me, imagined, due to ignorance, just as a snake appears in the rope, just as the mirage of water in the sunlight, and just as silver in mother of pearl.

Glory to Thy Self

11. How wonderful I am! Glory to me, for whom there is no destruction, remaining even beyond the destruction of the world from Brahma down to the last blade of grass. 

12. How wonderful I am! Glory to me, solitary! Even though with a body, I am neither going or coming anywhere; I abide forever, filling all that is.

13. How wonderful I am! Glory to me! There is no one so clever as me! I have borne all that is, forever, without even touching it with my body!

14. How wonderful I am! Glory to me! I possess nothing at all, and alternatively possess everything to which speech and mind can refer.

Caution: Ashtavakra Gita is not for the masses. Many people after reading Ashtavakra Gita have stopped practicing Meditation, rituals, yagna, stopped visiting temples.

Advaita in Yoga Vasistha

Yog Vasistha or Vasistha Gita is the discourse between Lord Ram and his Guru Vasistha. It is of advaita nature.

Yog Vasistha Sara can be found here

Caution: Yoga Vasistha is not for the masses. 

Some verses from Yog Vasistha sara:

Chapter One


1. Salutations to that calm effulgence which is endless and unlimited by space, time etc., the pure consciousness which can be known by experience only.

5. The great remedy for the long-lasting disease of samsara is the enquiry, 'Who am I?, to whom does this samsara belong?,' which entirely cures it.

Purport of sacred texts

10. That which is imparted, O good soul, to a worthy disciple who has become dispassionate, is the real wisdom; it is the real purport of the sacred texts and is also the comprehensive wisdom.

11. Following the customary method of teaching is only for preserving the tradition. Pure awareness results solely from the clarity of the disciple's understanding.

12. The Lord cannot be seen with the help of the sacred texts or the Guru. The self is seen by the Self alone with the pure intellect.

Samadhi is thoughtlessness

17. Even the slightest thought immerses a man in sorrow; when devoid of all thoughts he enjoys imperishable bliss.

Everything is a dream

18. Just as we experience the delusion of hundreds of years in a dream lasting an hour, so also we experience the sport of maya in our waking state.

Self does not die or is not shunya

21. On the dissolution of the body, the ether (consciousness) limited by the heart (hridayam) alone ceases to exist. People lament needlessly that the Self is extinct.

Jiva-Brahma-aikya: Jiva and Brahman are one and are not different

22. When pots, etc. are broken the space within them becomes unlimited. So also when bodies cease to exist the Self remains eternal and unattached.

Jagat in reality is brahman itself

23. Nothing whatever is born or dies anywhere at any time. It is Brahman alone appearing illusory in the form of the world.

Note: The jagat is satya, but not the way we see it. It is not other than Brahman. Similarly the body of Brahman is Brahman itself, eye of Brahman is Brahman itself. 

Brahman or Atman does not know anything else than Brahman / Atman says Sri Ramana Maharshi in 40 verses on Reality

17. To those who have not realized the Self, as well as to those who have, the word 'I' refers to the body, but with this difference, that for those who have not realized, the 'I' is confined to the body whereas for those who have realized the Self within the body the 'I' shines as the limitless Self.

18. To those who have not realized (the Self) as well as to those who have the world is real. But to those who have not realized, Truth is adapted to the measure of the world, whereas to those that have, Truth shines as the Formless Perfection, and as the Substratum of the world. This is all the difference between them.

Chapter Two

Unreality of the World

1. Just as the great ocean of milk became still when the Mandara Mountain (with which it was churned by the Devas and the Asuras) became still, even so the illusion of samsara comes to an end when the mind is stilled.

2. Samsara rises when the mind becomes active and ceases when it is still. Still the mind, therefore, by controlling the breath and the latent desires (vasanas).

3. This worthless (lit. burnt out) samsara is born of one's imagination and vanishes in the absence of imagination. It is certain that it is absolutely unsubstantial.

4. The idea of a (live) snake in a picture of a snake ceases to be entertained when the truth is known. Similarly samsara ceases to exist (when the Truth is realized), even if it continues to appear.

7. Dear boy, wonderful indeed is this maya which deludes the entire world. It is on account of it that the Self is not perceived even though it pervades all the limbs of the body.

8. Whatever is seen does not truly exist. It is like the mythical city of Gandharvas (fata morgana) or a mirage.

9. That which is not seen, though within us, is called the eternal and indestructible Self.

10. Just as the trees on the bank of a lake are reflected in the water, so also all these varied objects are reflected in the vast mirror of our consciousness.

11. This creation, which is a mere play of consciousness, rises up, like the delusion of a snake in a rope (when there is ignorance) and comes to an end when there is right knowledge.

12. Even though bondage does not really exist, it becomes strong through desire for worldly enjoyments; when this desire subsides bondage becomes weak.

13. Like waves rising up from the ocean the unstable mind rises out of the vast and stable expanse of the Supreme Self.

14. It is because of that which always, of its own accord, imagines (everything) quickly and freely that this magical show (of the world) is projected in the waking state.

15. This world, though unreal, appears to exist and is the cause of life-long suffering to an ignorant person, just as a (non-existent) ghost (is the cause of fear) to a boy.

16. One who has no idea of gold sees only the bracelet. He does not at all have the idea that it is merely gold.

Sri Ramana Maharshi's 40 verses on Reality

13. The Self, which is Knowledge, is the only Reality. Knowledge of multiplicity is false knowledge. This false knowledge, which is really ignorance, cannot exist apart from the Self, which is Knowledge-Reality. The variety of gold ornaments is unreal, since none of them can exist without the gold of which they are all made.

17. Similarly towns, houses, mountains, serpents, etc. are all in the eyes of the ignorant man, separate objects. From the absolute point of view; this objective (world) is the subject (the Self) itself; it is not separate (from the Self).

18. The world is full of misery to an ignorant man and full of bliss to a wise man. The world is dark to a blind man and bright to one who has eyes.

19. The bliss of a man of discrimination, who has rejected samsara and discarded all mental concepts, constantly increases.

Advaita in 10 (ten) mukhya (major) Upanishads

Advaita sthiti, transient impermanent nature of this world, renunciation of desires, and objects of this world (from mind), Atman and Brahman ar supreme and Atman is Brahman are found in Major Upanishads which teach Advaita Vedanta. 108 Upanishads are listed in Muktika Upanishad (quoted later), out of which Mandukya is considered as alone capable of giving Kaivalya Advaita Jnana. Ten mukhya upanishads or dasopanishads listed are

  1. Isa or Isha or IshavAshya (ŚYV) "The Inner Ruler"
  2. Kena (SV) "Who moves the world?"
  3. Katha (KYV) "Death as Teacher"
  4. Prasna, (AV) "The Breath of Life"
  5. Mundaka (AV) "Two modes of Knowing"
  6. MAndUkya (AV) "Consciousness and its phases"
  7. TaittirIya (KYV) "From Food to Joy"
  8. Aitareya, (ṚV) "The Microcosm of Man"
  9. ChAndogya (SV) "Song and Sacrifice"
  10. BrhadAranyaka (ŚYV)

Advaita Vedanta IshAvAsya Upanishad

ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पुर्णमुदच्यते
पूर्णश्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-Idam Puurnnaat-Purnnam-Udacyate
Puurnnashya Puurnnam-Aadaaya Puurnnam-Eva-Avashissyate ||
Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih ||

Completeness is that, completeness is this,
from completeness, completeness comes forth.
Completeness from completeness taken away,
completeness to completeness added,
completeness alone remains.
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!


That is the whole, this is the whole; 
from the whole, the whole becomes manifest; 
taking away the whole from the whole, 
the whole remains.
Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

First sloka (verse) says:

1. All that is in this transient world is covered by the Lord. 
Enjoy yourself with an attitude of self-resignation. 
 Do not desire eagerly the riches of any others.

Brahman is immovable, is substratum of everything. Everything moves within Brahman

4. Unmoving, It is one, faster than the mind. The senses cannot reach It, for It proceeds ahead. Remaining static It overtakes others that run. On account of Its presence, Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings.

5. It moves; It moves not. It is far; It is near. It is within all; It is without all.

6. He who perceives all beings in the Self alone, and the Self in all beings, does not entertain any hatred on account of that perception.

7. When a man realises that all beings are but the Self, what delusion is there, what grief, to that perceiver of oneness?

Self is All-pervading

8. That (Self) is all-pervading, radiant, bodiless, soreless, without sinews, pure, untainted by sin, the all-seer, the lord of the mind, transcendent and self-existent. That (Self) did allot in proper order to the eternal Prajapatis known as samvalsara (year) their duties.

9. Those who worship avidya (karma born of ignorance) go to pitch darkness, but to a greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to Vidya (knowledge of the Devatas).

10. Different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by vidya and different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by avidya. Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us.

11. He who knows both vidya and avidya together, transcends mortality through avidya and reaches immortality through vidya.

Manifested (SaguNa) and unmanifested (NirguNa) Brahman - fruits of worship of both

12. To pitch darkness they go who worship the Unmanifested (Prakriti). To a greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to the Manifested (Hiranyagarbha).

13. Different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Manifested and different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Unmanifested. Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us.

14. He who knows both the Unmanifested and the destructible (Hiranyagarbha) together, transcends death by the (worship of) the destructible and attains immortality by the (worship of ) the Unmanifested.

CAUTION: Upanishads are not for the masses. Bhagavad Gita, Guru Gita, Yog VAsistha, Prasna Upanishad, Katha Upanishad and other Advaita Shastras that teach about Brahma-vidya are taught by only one who is established in Brahman and imparted to disciples who is free of worldly desires, pure minded, subtle intellect, has dispassion in society. 

Brahma Sutra is only for some elite group of sadhakas who would like to get more clarity after reading all upanishads and are confused about different upanishads saying different things. Brahma Sutra is said to clear this doubts.

Advaita Vedanta in Kena Upanishad - I may not deny Brahman and Brahman do not deny me.

Kena Upanishad starts with a question about Who Am I and says taht May I not deny Brahman and that Brahman do not deny me. It also says that I am a devotee of Atman, indicating that Brahman and Atman are one and the same.

Let my limbs grow strong. Let my speech, vital energy, 
eyes, ears, vitality become more powerful. May I not deny 
Brahman and may Brahman not deny me. Let there be no 
rejection or denial of Brahman by me. May the qualities 
proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me as I am a devotee 
of the Atman.

Kena Upanishad ends with Chapter 4 saying that

He who has this knowledge is established in It. All that is 
infinite, and blissful rests in Brahman, rests in Brahman .

Kena Upanishad also says that Indra and other demi Gods like Agni and Vayu excelled than other Gods as they were very near to knowing Brahman. Indra excelled than other Gods as he was the first to know that 'I am Brahman' (4.2-4.3)

Advaita Vedanta in Katha Upanishad (kathopanishad)

Katha Upanishad is a discourse between Nachiketas and Yamadev, Lord of Death. Yamadev offers Nachiketas to ask 3 boons out of which 2 are for his father and one is Tatva Jnana. Only after examining Nachiketas and repeatedly tempting for another boon which gives worldly pleasures, and rejection by Nachikeyas, Yamadev finally gives instructions on Brahma Jnana. It belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda.

Blind Leading Blind

1.2.5 The deluded staying in illusion thinking themselves to be enlightened go in circles faltering and floundering like sightless-men led by a sightless one.

Brahma Jnana is difficult to grasp and teach

1.2.7 It is not possible for many to hear about it (Brahman) and even having heard many do not understand. The teacher must be a skilful one and the pupil should be sharp in grasp. The knower is a wonderful person instructed by the adept.

Brahman is beyond speech and arguments i.e. mind and intellect

1.2.8 This principle (Brahman) is not understood by pondering in different ways or being taught by one of low ability. There is no other way than being taught by one of unparalleled ability and it transcends all arguments and is subtlest of subtle.

2.9 This knowledge is not attainable by argumentation. It is of easy comprehension only when instructed by another. O! Dearest one! O! Nachiketa! let there be seekers like you! You are truly resolved in your desire. 

Meditate to realize Truth and go beyond joy and sorrow (Duality)

1.2.12 The wise man having, by meditating on it , got that which is difficult to realise, effulgent, deep-seated and immanent, dwelling in the cave of the heart transcends both joy and sorrow.

Glory of OM - Meditation on OM gives one all the fruits that is obtained by rituals and one reaches truth which is proclaimed by shastras and the end result of Self Enquiry

1.2.15 That which is proclaimed by all the scriptures, which is said to be the end effect of all rituals and for which enquiry into the ultimate reality is undertaken, I shall tell you about it briefly as "OM".

1.2.16 This syllable (OM) is the highest (Brahman) , this alone is ever-lasting and whoever realises this attains whatever he desires. 
1.2.17 This (syllable OM) is the best support, this is the supreme support and upon realising this, one is adored in the world of Brahma (Hiranyagarbha loka)

Consciousness is beyond birth and death

1.2.18 The consciousness (soul ) is neither born nor is it subject to death. It has not manifested from anything nor has it given rise to a new entity. This one is unborn, always existing, everlasting, indeterminable in antiquity and is not destroyed when the body (container) is destroyed. 

21..19 If the slayer thinks he stays, and slain thinks that he is slain, neither of them knows the truth. This (Knower) neither slays nor is slain.  

Note: Similar verse is found in Bhagavad Gita where Bhagavan says that even by killing all you will not kill anything. Rise above deha-bhava or sarira bhava (body consciousness), as all are Atman [citation needed]

About Atman - Upadeshas similar to Bhagavad Gita

1.2.20 Smaller than the smallest, greater than the greatest is the Atman that dwells in the cave of the heart of beings. He who is desireless, realises the glory of Atman through cleansing of mind and senses, and transcends from sorrow.

Similarly we can find many verses which are of advaitic nature, which emphasize on renunciation, transient nature of things, nothing except atman is permanent, limited efforts cannot produce limited results, and Atman is beyond mind and intellect. Atman is beyond duality.  By meditating on OM, one can Self Realize. It also says that only a realized teacher can teach to a capable disciple, else it will be like blind leading blind.

1.2.21 While seated, he travels far ; lying down he goes all-over. Who can know other than me that Shining One, who revels and revels.

Similar verse in Bhagavad Gita says that one who has no eyes but sees, or one who is an eye of an eye, etc is also found. [citation needed]
Similar verse is also found in Ashtavakra Gita - Jnani is the one who does not do any karam even tough he does and vice versa [citation needed]

1.2.22 Having realised the all-pervading Supreme Atman, who is bodiless within the bodies, stable amidst the unstable, the wise one grieves no more.

Atman cannot be realized  without the grace of Atman.

1.2.23 By study of the scriptures, lecturing one's own intellectual enquiries or by wide learning or listening, this Atman cannot be realised. Whomsoever, it chooses alone, is attainable that realisation about It, as It reveals Its own nature to him.

Similar is said in first verse of Avadhut Gita. 

1. By the grace of God the Brahmins above all men are inspired with the disposition to non-duality (unity of the Self with God), which relieves them of the great fear. 

Sri Ramakrishna says same thing.

In dark place, the one holding lantern can guide others in dark and can see their face, but others cannot see the face of lantern holder. They can only see his face if the lantern holder throws light upon himself.

Impure mind cannot attain Atman

1.2.24 He who is not free from evil conduct, whose senses are not controlled , whose emotions are not harmonised, whose mind is not at peace, cannot attain this Atman by any means of knowledge.

Katha Upanishad contains many verses which concur teachings of Bhagavan in Bhagavad Gita, which is not surprising as Bhagavan has himself said that he is not giving what is new, but that said in Upanishads by Rishis and is imparting Brahma-Vidya

Brahman is beyond attributes

1.3.15 - “That which is soundless, touchless, formless, undecaying, tasteless, internal, smellless, imperishable, immortal, beginningless, endless, (infinite), greater than the greatest, distinct from intelligence, (i.e., distinct from ahamkara) and changelessly constant…..”

Source: Link 1Link 2

Advaita Vedanta in Prashna Upanishad

Prashna Upanishad is listed fourth in Muktika Upanishad and belongs to Atharveda.

1.1 Sukesa, son of Bharadvaja, Satyakama, son of Sibi, Sauryanin, the grandson of Surya of the Garga clan, Kausalya, son of Asvala, Bhargava of Vidharbha, Kabandhi, the son of Katya, all of them devoted to   and rooted in Brahman, with sacrificial fuel in hand, approached Pippalada, hoping that he would tell them about all That.

4.4 The Samana takes with it the two oblations of inhaling and exhaling evenly into the system. The Samana is said to be the priest officiating at the sacrifice i.e. the hota . The mind is indeed the sacrificer and Udana is the desired end of the sacrifice (liberation). It (Udana) causes the sacrificer to attain Brahman every day. 

4.7 O ! Pleasant looking one ! just as birds stay put in trees , so it is said that all these stay in the superior self.

4.9 It is indeed the dweller who sees, feels, hears, smells, tastes, thinks, knows; he is the one who acts, the intelligent soul, the Purusa. He is established in the supreme indestructible Atman. 

4.10 One of pleasant looks! He who realises that imperishable one into which lapse the mind, the sense organs, the gross elements and the vital airs,  becomes all-knowing and enters into everything.

5.2 O ! Satyakama ! Om is really the higher and the lower Brahman. Thus, the one who knows begets one of these two by this method.

Chapter 5 goes on to explain OM, it's 4 states, contemplating on any of the single letter and finally concludes

5.7 Through the first syllable is attained this human world, by the second is obtained the lunar world and by the third that obtained only by the wise. That which is tranquil, undiminishing, undying and rid of all fear - the greatest is attained by means of this OM.

In Second last verse of chapter 6 Pippalada, the Guru says

6.3 He said to them : 'As far as I know the Supreme are - Brahman - there is nothing greater than this.' 

Advaita Vedanta in Mundaka Upanishad

नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो
न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन।
यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्य-
स्तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूं स्वाम्‌॥ ३॥

nāyamātmā pravacanena labhyo
na medhayā na bahunā śrutena |
yamevaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhya-
stasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanūṁ svām || 3||

You cannot have the knowledge of the Supreme Soul by
means of reasoning, erudition, or studying of the Vedas;
Only through causeless mercy does He reveal His own
person unto him whom He does accept as His own. 3.2.3


This Atman cannot be attained through study of the Vedas,
nor through intelligence, nor through much learning.
He who is chosen by Atman—by him alone is Atman attained.
It is Atman that reveals to the seeker Its true nature. 3.2.3

III.i.7 – “ That ( i.e., Brahman) is infinite, effulgent, not accessible to thought, formless, subtler than the subtlest; farther than the farthest. It is, at the same time, near at hand in this body. It is available to be recognized in one’s very heart, (i.e., as the consciousness behind the ahamkara)”.

Advaita Vedanta in Mandukya Upanishad

हरिः ओम्‌ । ओमित्येतदक्षरमिदं सर्व तस्योपव्याख्यानं भूतं भवद् भविष्यदिति सर्वमोङ्कार एव । 
यच्चान्यत् त्रिकालातीतं तदप्योड़्कार (तदप्य् ओङ्कार) एव ॥ १ ॥

1. Hari OM. OM is everything. One that is past and future that is noting but in reality OM. The one which is above 3 kALa (tenses of time, past, present and future) is in reality OM.

Bhagavan in Gita says that 'I am OM' (BG: 7:8)

7. The Fourth is thought of as that which is not conscious of the internal world, nor conscious of the external world, nor conscious of both the worlds, nor dense with consciousness, nor simple consciousness, nor unconsciousness, which is unseen, actionless, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable, indescribable, whose proof consists in the identity of the Self (in all states), in which all phenomena come to a cessation, and which is unchanging, auspicious, and non-dual. That is the Self; that is to be known.

12. That which is without letters (parts) is the Fourth, beyond apprehension through ordinary means, the cessation of the phenomenal world, the auspicious and the non-dual. Thus Om is certainly the Self. He who knows thus enters the Self by the Self.

All 12 verses of Mandukya Upanishad explain glories and true nature of OM

Advaita Vedanta in Taittiriya Upanishad

Taittiriya Upanishad forms the seventh, eighth and ninth chapters of the Taittiriya Aranyaka of the Krishna Yajur Veda. These chapters are known as Siksha Valli, Ananda Valli and Bhrigu Valli, respectively. Siksha Valli teaches on different types of Meditation. Ananda Valli teaches that Brahman is supreme, Brahman alone can destroy ignorance and one who knows brahman becomes brahman. Brigu Valli is a further discussion where 5 sheaths are discussed and Atman is the innermost core. Also note that second and third valli starts with Shanti Mantra, an approach similar to that Adopted by Shri GaudpadAcharya in Mandukya Karika prakaraNa 4, alAta Santi.

1.8.1 One should contemplate thus : Om is Brahman, and all the universe, perceived or imagined is Om. The entire hierarchy of priests at the sacrifice initiate their respective roles by or responding with reciting 'Om', starting with the Adhvaryu or the supervising priest, the Udgatr who chants the hymns of the Sama Veda, the Hotr priests who recite the Rig Veda, and finally the Brahmana who prays to attain Brahman. Thus by performance in unison alone is Brahman attained.

2.1.1  Om. May Mitra be propitious unto us! May Varuna be propitious unto us! May Aryaman be propitious unto us! May Indra and Brihaspati be propitious unto us! May Vishnu, of wide strides, be propitious unto us! Salutation to Brahman! Salutation to Thee, O Vayu! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman. Thee indeed, O Vayu, I shall proclaim as the right! Thee indeed, I shall proclaim as the true! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher! May It protect me! May It protect the teacher!


May He (Brahman) protect and nourish us. May our joint work and study be vigorous and effective; may we not enter into dispute.  Om, May there be peace, peace, peace.

2.1.2 One who realises Brahman attains the Supreme. For it is declared that Brahman is existence, knowledge and Infinite. He who finds Brahman within the secret recesses of his own heart will have no   further want as he will have attained everything.

2.1.3 From that very Atman (Brahman) ether came to be; from ether came air, from air came fire, from fire came water, from water came the earth, from the earth came herbs, from herbs came food, and from food came man. This man, his head, his body and every part of him, all come from that ultimate Brahman. All this is further explained here.

2.4.1 He who knows the bliss of Brahman which is beyond the reach of the word and the mind - he does not fear anything.

2.6.4 The one Atman decided to project Himself into the many and thus created the manifold universe of existence, filled it, and yet remained extending everywhere beyond it. Within the infinite, he became the finite, within the undefined, he became the defined, and yet remained the ultimate and the entire Reality.   

Advaita Vedanta in Aitareya Upanishad

Part 1, Chapter 1, Section 1

From itself, That one and only Consciousness, the Atman, willed the creation of Cosmos ...

Part Three 

Chapter I—Concerning the Self

1 Who is He whom we worship, thinking: "This is the Self"? Which one is the Self? Is it He by whom one sees form, by whom one hears sound and by whom one tastes the sweet and the unsweet? 

2 Is it the heart and the mind. It is consciousness, lordship, knowledge, wisdom, retentive power of mind, sense knowledge, steadfastness, though, thoughtfulness, sorrow, memory, concepts, purpose, life, desire, longing: all these are but various names of Consciousness (Prajnanam). 

3 He is Brahman, He is Indra, He is Prajapati; He is all these gods; He is the five great elements—earth, air, akasa, water, light; He is all these small creatures and the others which are mixed; He is the origin—those born of an egg, of a womb, of sweat and of a sprout; He is horses, cows, human beings, elephants—whatever breathes here, whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. All this is guided by Consciousness, is supported by Consciousness. The basis is Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman (Prajnanam Brahma). 

4 He, having realised oneness with Pure Consciousness, soared from this world and having obtained all desires in yonder heavenly world, became immortal—yea, became immortal.

Advaita Vedanta Chandogya Upanishad

Chandogya Upanishad begins with the explanation on OM Chapter 1 and beginning verses of chapter 2 talk about OM.

आत्मतः प्राण आत्मत आशा आत्मतः स्मरआत्मत आकाश आत्मतस्तेज आत्मत आपःआत्मत आविर्भावतिरोभावावात्मतोऽन्नम्।।7.26.1.

Atmatah prana atmata asa atmatah smaraAtmata akasa atmatasteja atmata apahAtmata avirbhavatirobhavavatmatonnam.

"From the Self is life; from the Self is desire; from the Self is love; from the Self is ether; from the Self is light; from the Self are the waters; from the Self is appearance and disappearance; from the Self is food." 7.26.1.

Connection with BG 13:31 by Shri Adi Shankaracharya

V-xxiv-4: Therefore, even if one, who knows thus, offers the remnant of his food to a Chandala, then also that food becomes his offering to the Vaisvanara Atman only. There is this verse about it.

VI-ix-1-2: ‘As, dear boy, the bees make honey by collecting juices from different trees and reduce them into one essence, and there, as these juices have no such discrimination as “I am the juice of this tree, I am the juice of that tree”; even so, dear boy, all these creatures having merged into Being, do not know, “We have merged into Being.”

VI-ix-4: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause), even That all this world has for its self. That is the true. That is the Atman. That thou art, O Svetaketu.’ ‘Revered sir, please explain it further to me’. ‘So be it, dear boy’, said (the father).

verses from 6.9.4 to 6.15.3 teach advaita

Narada approaches Sanata Kumara for Atma Jnana.

VII-i-1: Om. ‘Revered sir, teach me,’ thus saying Narada approached Sanatkumara. Sanatkumara said to him, ‘What you already know, declaring that to me, be my disciple. What is beyond that I shall tell you.’ Narada said:

VII-i-2: ‘Revered sir, I know the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda and the Atharvanas the fourth, the Itihasa-Purana as the fifth, grammar, the rules for the worship of the ancestors, mathematics, the science of portents, the science of treasures, logic, the science of ethics, etymology, the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas, the physical sciences, the science of war, the science of the stars, the science related to serpents, and the fine arts – all this I know, revered sir.’

VII-i-3: ‘Revered sir, however, I am only a knower of verbal texts, not a knower of Atman. Indeed I have heard from persons like your revered self that a knower of Atman goes beyond grief. I am in such a state of grief. May your revered self take me across it.’ Sanatkumara replied to him,’ Whatsoever you have studied here, really it is only a name.’

Here one goes from gross to subtle to treat each and everything as Brahman like water, fire, air, akash, will, understanding, mind, etc is considered as Brahman. But still Narada is not satisfied with this and asks that there must be something greater than the one explained.

VII-xvi-1: ‘But he really speaks surpassingly who speaks surpassingly with truth’. ‘Revered sir, being such, I would speak surpassingly with truth’. ‘But one must desire to understand the truth’. ‘Revered sir, I desire to understand the truth’.

VII-xvii-1: ‘When one understands, then alone does one declare the truth. Without understanding, one does not declare the truth. Only he who understands declares the truth. But one must desire to understand understanding.’ ‘Revered sir, I desire to understand understanding’.

Real Happiness (Ananda) is infinite

VII-xxii-1: ‘When one obtains happiness’, then alone does one act. Without obtaining happiness one does not act. Only on obtaining happiness does one act. But one must desire to understand happiness’. ‘Revered sir, I desire to understand happiness’.

VII-xxiii-1: That which is infinite, is alone happiness. There is no happiness in anything finite. The infinite alone is happiness. But one must desire to understand the infinite’. ‘Revered sir, I desire to understand the infinite’.

Brahman is beyond understanding and senses

VII-xxiv-1: ‘In which one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, understands nothing else, that is infinite. But that in which one sees something else, hears something else, understands something else, is the finite. That which is infinite, is alone immortal, and that which is finite, is mortal’. ‘Revered sir, in what is that infinite established ?’ ‘On its own greatness or not even on its own greatness’.

VII-xxiv-2: ‘Here in this world people call cows and horses, elephants and gold, servants and wives, fields and houses, “greatness”. I do not speak thus (of greatness), for in that case one thing would be established in another. What I do say is thus:

Brahman is Infinite

VII-xxv-1: ‘That infinite alone is below. That is above. That is behind. That is in front. That is to the south. That is to the north. That alone is all this. So next is the teaching in regard to the self-sense. I alone am below. I am above. I am behind. I am in front. I am to the south. I am to the north. I alone am all this.

VII-xxv-2: ‘So now is the teaching through Atman. Atman alone is below. Atman is above. Atman is behind. Atman is in front. Atman is to the south. Atman is to the north. Atman alone is all this. Verily, he it is who sees thus, and understands thus, has pleasure in Atman, delight in Atman, union in Atman, joy in Atman. He becomes Self-sovereign; he becomes free to act as he wishes in all the worlds. But those who know otherwise than this are ruled by others and live in perishable worlds; they are not free to act as they wish in all the worlds.

VII-xxvi-1: Verily, for him alone, who sees thus, reflects thus and understands thus, Prana springs from Atman, aspiration from Atman, memory from Atman, Akasa from Atman, fire from Atman, water from Atman, appearance and disappearances from Atman, food from Atman, strength from Atman, understanding from Atman, contemplation from Atman, intelligence from Atman, will from Atman, mind from Atman, speech from Atman, name from Atman, hymns from Atman, rites from Atman, all this (springs) from Atman alone.

VII-xxvi-2: ‘There is this verse about it: “He who sees this does not see death nor illness nor any sorrow. He who sees this sees all things and obtains all things in all ways.” ‘He is one, becomes threefold, fivefold, sevenfold and also ninefold. Then again he is called the elevenfold, also a hundred-and-ten-fold and also a thousand-and twenty-fold. ‘’When nourishment is pure, reflection and higher understanding become pure. When reflection and higher understanding are pure, memory becomes strong. When memory becomes strong, there is release from all the knots of the heart. The revered Sanatkumara showed to Narada, after his impurities had been washed off, the further shore of darkness. People call Sanatkumara as Skanda – yea, they call him Skanda.

Everything is inside Brahman

VIII-i-1: Om. Now, in this city of Brahman, there is a mansion in the shape of a small lotus; in it is a small inner Akasa. What is within that, that should be sought; that indeed, one should desire to understand.

VIII-i-2-3: If the disciples should say to him, ‘In this city of Brahman in which is a small mansion in the shape of a lotus and in the small inner Akasa within – what is it that lies there which should be sought, which one should desire to understand ?’ – he should say in reply, ‘As large indeed as is this Akasa, so large is that Akasa in the heart. Within it, indeed, are contained both heaven and earth, both fire and air, both the sun and the moon, lightning and the stars. Whatever there is of him in this world and whatever is not, all that is contained within it.’

Heart is Atman, Atman is Brahman

VIII-iii-3: This Atman verily is in the heart. Its etymological explanation is this. This (Atman) is in the heart, hence it is the heart. He who knows thus indeed goes daily into the heavenly world.

VIII-iii-4: Now that serene and happy being, rising out of this body and reaching the highest light, appears in his own true form. This is the Atman, said the teacher. This is the immortal, the fearless. This is Brahman. Verily, the name of this Brahman is the True.

VIII-iii-5: These are indeed the three syllables, ‘sa’, ‘ti’, ‘yam’. What is ‘sa’, that is the immortal, and what is ‘ti’, that is the mortal, and what is ‘yam’, with it one holds the two together. Because with it one holds the two together, therefore it is ‘yam’. Verily, he who knows thus goes to the heavenly world.’

Atman is beyond everything

VIII-iv-1: Now, this Atman is the dyke, the embankment for the safety of these worlds. This dyke, neither the day nor the night crosses, nor old age nor death nor sorrow, nor merit nor demerit. All evils turn back from it, for this Brahman-world is free from evil.

VIII-iv-2: Therefore, verily, on reaching this dyke, if one was blind he ceases to be blind; if wounded, he ceases to be wounded, if afflicted- he ceases to be afflicted. Therefore, verily, on reaching this dyke, even night becomes day, for this Brahman-world is ever illumined.

He who attains Atman attains everything

VIII-vii-1: The Atman which is free from evil, free from old age, free from death, free from sorrow, free from hunger and thirst, whose desire is of the truth, whose resolve is of the truth, he should be sought, him one should desire to understand. He who has found out and who understands that Atman attains all the worlds and all the desires. Thus spoke Prajapati.

Advaita Vedanta BrihadAraNya Upanishad

Brihad-araNya Upanishad begins with Shanti Mantra (Peace Chant) which is of Advaita Nature

ॐ असतो मा सद्गमय ।
तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ।
मृत्योर्मा अमृतं गमय ।
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Om Asato Maa Sad-Gamaya |
Tamaso Maa Jyotir-Gamaya |
Mrtyor-Maa Amrtam Gamaya |
Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih ||

Om, Lead us from Unreality (of Transitory Existence) to the Reality (of Self),
Lead us from the Darkness (of Ignorance) to the Light (of Spiritual Knowledge),
Lead us from the Fear of Death to the Knowledge of Immortality.
Om Peace, Peace, Peace.

Another Shanti Mantra

Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

Brahman can only be described by negation

II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep’s wool, or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this, not this’. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

Definition of Brahman

III-viii-8: He said: O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman say, this Immutable (Brahman) is that. It is neither gross nor minute, neither short nor long, neither red colour nor oiliness, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor ether, unattached, neither savour nor odour, without eyes or ears, without the vocal organ or mind, non-luminous, without the vital force or mouth, not a measure, and without interior or exterior. It does not eat anything, nor is It eaten by anybody.

III-viii-10: He, O Gargi, who in this world, without knowing this Immutable, offers oblations in the fire, performs sacrifices and undergoes austerities even for many thousand years, finds all such acts but perishable; he, O Gargi, who departs from this world without knowing this Immutable, is miserable. But he, O Gargi, who departs from this world after knowing this Immutable, is a knower of Brahman.

Brahman is Witness

III-viii-11: This Immutable, O Gargi, is never seen but is the Witness; It is never heard, but is the Hearer; It is never thought, but is the Thinker; It is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other witness but This, no other hearer but This, no other thinker but This, no other knower but This. By this Immutable, O Gargi, is the (Unmanifested) ether pervaded.

Atman is Brahman

II-v-15: This Self, already mentioned, is the ruler of all beings, and the king of all beings. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel, so are all beings, all gods, all worlds, all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self. 

II-v-19: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, ‘(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form; that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. The Lord on account of Maya (notions superimposed by ignorance) is perceived as manifold, for to Him are yoked ten organs, nay, hundreds of them. He is the organs; He is ten and thousands – many and infinite. That Brahman is without prior or posterior, without interior or exterior. This self, the perceiver of everything, is Brahman. This is the teaching.

Advaita in other Upanishads

Svetashvatara Upanishad on Brahman as Ishwara

(cited by Adi Sankara and vaiSNava AcArya-s)

Svetashvatara or Shvetashvatara Upanishad is considered an an important and often clubbed with other 10 major Upanishads, some saying that there are 11 major upanishads. It belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda.

I-15-16: As oil in sesame seeds, as butter in curds, as water in underground springs, as fire in wood, even so this Self is perceived in the self. He who, by means of truthfulness, self-control and concentration, looks again and again for this Self, which is all-pervading like butter contained in milk, and which is rooted in self-knowledge and meditation – he becomes that Supreme Brahman, the destroyer of ignorance.

II-14: Just as the same metal disc, which was stained by dust before, shines brilliantly when cleaned, so the embodied being, seeing the truth of Atman, realizes oneness, attains the goal and becomes sorrowless.

II-15: When the Yogin realizes the truth of Brahman, through the perception of the truth of Atman in this body as a self-luminous entity, then, knowing the Divinity as unborn, eternal and free from all the modifications of Prakriti, he is freed from all sins.

III-1: It is the self-same One who exists alone at the time of creation and dissolution of the universe, that assumes manifold powers and appears as the Divine Lord by virtue of His inscrutable power of Maya. He it is that protects all the worlds and controls all the various forces working therein. Those who realize this Being becomes immortal.

NirguNa Brahman

III-7: Higher than this Personal Brahman is the infinite Supreme Brahman, who is concealed in all beings according to their bodies, and who, though remaining single, envelops the whole universe. Knowing him to be the Lord, one becomes immortal.

III-9: There is naught higher than or different from Him; naught greater or more minute than Him. Rooted in His own glory He stands like a tree, one without a second and immovable. By that Being the whole universe is filled.

III-10: That Being is far beyond this world, is formless and free from misery. They who know this become immortal. But all others have indeed to suffer misery alone.

III-12: This Self is indeed the mighty Lord. He is the imperishable (internal) light that controls everything. He guides the intellect of all beings so as to enable them to gain that extremely pure state (of Mukti).

III-15: That which is, that which was, and that which is yet to be – all this is nothing but this Infinite Being. Though He grows beyond His own nature into the form of the objective universe, He still remains the lord of immortality.

III-17: They realize Him as shining by the functions of all the senses yet without the senses as the lord of all, the ruler of all, the refuge of all and the friend of all.

III-19: Without hands and feet He goes fast and grasps; without eyes He sees; without ears He hears. He knows whatever is to be known, yet there is none who knows Him. They say He is the foremost, the great Infinite Being.

III-20: Subtler than even the subtlest and greater than the greatest, the Atman is concealed in the heart of the creature. By the grace of the Creator, one becomes free from sorrows and desires, and then realizes Him as the great Lord.

III-21: I know this undecaying primeval Immanent Self of all, who is omnipresent because of His all-pervasiveness, and whom the expounders of Brahman declare to be eternally free from birth.

IV-1: May that Divine Being, who, though Himself colourless, gives rise to various colours in different ways with the help of His own power, for His own inscrutable purpose, and who dissolves the whole world in Himself in the end – may He endow us with good thoughts !

IV-17: This Divinity, who created the universe and who pervades everything, always dwells in the hearts of creatures, being finitized by emotions, intellect, will and imagination. Those who realize this become immortal.

Advaita in Muktika Upanishad (Muktikopanishad)

(cited by vidyAraNya svAmI)

Muktika Upanishad is a discource between Bhagavan Rama and Rama Bhakta Hanuman ji, which occurs when Rama was about to leave this world and return to Vaikuntha.

I-i-18-23. Rama: Liberation is of four kinds: Salokya etc. But the only real type is Kaivalya. Anybody even though leading a wicked life, attains Salokya, not other worlds, by worshipping my name. Dying in the sacred Brahmanala in Kashi, he will get the Taraka-mantra and also liberation, without rebirth. On dying anywhere (else) in Kashi, Maheshvara will utter the Taraka-mantra in his right ear. He gets Sarupya with me as his sins are washed away.

The same is called Salokya and Sarupya. Persevering in good conduct, with mind fixed upon me, loving me as the Self of all, the twice-born gets nearer to me – This is called the three forms of liberation. Salokya, Sarupya and Samipya.

I-i-24-25. Meditating on my eternal form as prescribed by the Teacher, one will surely achieve identity with me like the insects changing into the bee. This alone is the liberation of identity (Sayujya) yielding the bliss of Brahman.

All these four kinds of Mukti will be got by worshipping Me.

I-i-26-29. But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha got ? The Mandukya is enough; if knowledge is not got from it, then study the Ten Upanishads. Getting knowledge very soon, you will reach my abode. If certainty is not got even then, study the 32 Upanishads and stop. If desiring Moksha without the body, read the 108 Upanishads.

Advaita Vedanta in subAla Upanishad

(cited by rAmAnuja)

1.4. At the end, becoming Vaisvanara (fire), he burned (destroyed) all creatures – earth was absorbed in water, water in fire, fire in air, air in ether, ether in sense organs, they in subtle elements, they in Prakriti, Prakriti in Mahat, Mahat in Avyakta, Avyakta in
Akshara, Akshara in Tamas, it in God. Then there is neither existent nor non-existent. This is the doctrine of dissolution (as given in) Vedas.

3.1. In the beginning, this was non-existent. The man of wisdom does grow, meditating upon the Atman which has no birth, no rising, nor setting, unestablished, having no sound, touch, form, taste, smell, decay nor any thing bigger.

3.2. Without vital breath, face, ears, speech, mind, radiance, eyes, name, lineage, head, hands or feet, smoothness, blood, measurability, neither long, short nor gross, nor atomic, shoreless, beyond description, not open, nor illuminable, nor closed, without inside or outside; it neither eats nor is eaten

5.15. There is oneness – how can there be duality – No mortality – how immortality ? Not cognisant inwardly or outwardly, or both ways – not a mass of knowledge, neither knowing nor not knowing..

Advaita in nirAlambopaniShad

(translated by lahiri mahASaya of kriyA yOga)

ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या जीवो ब्रहैव नापर  (निरालम्बोपनिषद - २८)

"Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" - nirAlambopaniShada - 28 (Niraalamba Upanishad - 28)

Advaita and Ajaata vAda in tejobindu Upanishad

(dipikA by nArAyaNa, translated by lahiri mahASaya of kriyA yOga)

इदं प्रपच्चं नास्त्येव नोत्पन्नं नोत्थितं जगत् - ५/३१

ida.m prapachcha.m naastyeva notpanna.m notthita.m jagata - 5/31

This jagat-rupi (like) prapancha is not there, did not get created and was never there - 5/31

मायाकार्यादिकं नास्ति माया नास्ति भयं नहि - ५/३३

mAyAkAryAdika.m naasti mAyA nAsti bhaya.m naasti

maya's karya (work -result), jagata etc is not there (non-existent), maya is not there (present) and so there is no fear - 5/33

Advaita in Amrit Bindu Upanishad

(cited by vidyAraNya svAmI)

7. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters, then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om, the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity.

8. That alone is Brahman, without component parts, without doubt and without taint. Realising “I am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman.

9. (Brahman is) without doubt, endless, beyond reason and analogy, beyond all proofs and causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free.

10. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises, “There is neither control of the mind, nor its coming into play”, “Neither am I bound, nor am I a worshipper, neither am I a seeker after liberation, nor one-who has attained liberation”.

19. Of cows which are of diverse colours the milk is of the same colour. (the intelligent one) regards Jnana as the milk, and the many-branched Vedas as the cows.

20. Like the butter hidden in milk, the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind.

21. Taking hold of the rope of knowledge, one should bring out, like fire, the Supreme Brahman. I am that Brahman indivisible, immutable, and calm, thus it is thought of.

22. In Whom reside all beings, and Who resides in all beings by virtue of His being the giver of grace to all – I am that Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Being, I am that Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Being.


Advaita Vedanta in Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad

(cited by Adi Sankara, vidyAraNya svAmI)

I-6. Self as Truth; it is the Self of all and is Brahman. He should say, ‘The Real’. ‘What is that, viz., the Real ?’ What is other than the gods (sense-organs) and the vital breaths, that is the sat (what is) As for the gods and the vital breaths, they are the tvam (the you). This is expressed by the word satyam. It is as extensive as all this. You are this world-all. Thus then he speaks to him. This very thing has been expressed by a Rig verse:

Having Yajus as her belly, having the Saman as his head

Having the Rik as his form imperishable.

Is Brahman – thus is he to be known.

The great seen consists on the Vedas.

III-7. For verily without intelligence speech would not make any name whatsoever known. 

‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that name’.

For verily without intelligence breath would not make any odour whatsoever known.

‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that odour’.

For verily without intelligence the eye would not make any form whatsoever known.

‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that form’.

For verily without intelligence the ear would not make any sound whatsoever known.

‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise the sound’.

For verily without intelligence the tongue would not make any taste of food whatsoever known. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that taste of food’.

For verily without intelligence the two hands would not make any action whatsoever known. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that action’.

For verily without intelligence the body would not make known any pleasure or pain whatsoever. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that pleasure and pain’.

For verily without intelligence the generative organ would not make known any bliss, delight and procreation whatsoever. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that bliss, delight and procreation’.

For verily without intelligence the two feet would not make known any going whatsoever. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says, ‘I did not cognise that going’.

For verily without intelligence no thought whatever would be effected, nothing cognisable would be cognized.

III-8. One has to win the pure knowledge of the unity of Brahman and Atman.

Speech is not what one should seek to know; one should know the speaker.

Smell is not what one should seek to know; one should know the smeller.

Form is not what one should seek to know; one should know the seer.

Sound is not what one should seek to know; one should know the hearer.

Taste of food is not what one should seek to know; one should know the knower of the taste of food.

Deed is not what one should seek to know; one should know the doer.

Pleasure and pain are not what one should seek to know; one should know the discerner of pleasure and pain.

Bliss, delight and procreation are not what one should seek to know; one should know the discerner of bliss, delight and procreation.

Going is not what one should seek to know; one should know the goer.

Mind is not what one should seek to know; one should know the thinker.

These ten essential elements, verily, are with reference to intelligence. These ten intelligential elements are with reference to existence. Verily if there were no elements of existence, there would be no elements of intelligence. Verily if there were no elements of intelligence, there would be no elements of existence. Truly from either alone, no form whatever would be possible.

And this (the Self of intelligence) is not diverse. But as of a chariot, the felly is fixed on the spokes and the spokes are fixed on the hub, even so these elements of existence are fixed on the elements of intelligence; the elements of intelligence are fixed on the vital breath.

This vital breath, truly, is the Self of intelligence: (it is) bliss, ageless, immortal. He does not become greater with good action nor indeed lesser with bad action. This one truly indeed causes him whom he wishes to lead up from this world to perform good action. This one also indeed causes him whom he wishes to lead downwards to perform bad action. He is the protector of the world; he is the sovereign of the world; he is the Lord of all. ‘He is myself’ – this one should know. ‘He is my Self’ – This one should know.

Note: Kaushitaki Upanishad is referred by Shri Chandrashekhar Saraswati, Shankaracharya of Kanchi Kamkoti Peetha, in the book 'The Vedas'

Advaita Vedanta in Brahma Upanishad

(The reference of Brahma-Upanishad is given in Chandogya Upanishad (3.11.3), dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)

1. Om ! Shaunaka, householder of fame, once asked Bhagavan Pippalada of Angira’s family: In this body, the divine city of Brahman, installed, how do they create ? Whose glory does this constitute ? Who is he who became all this glory ?

2. Unto him (Shaunaka) he (Pippalada) imparted the supreme Wisdom of Brahman: That is Prana, the Atman. He constitutes the glory of the Atman, the life of the Devas. He represents both the life and the death of the Devas. That Brahman who shines within the divine Brahmapura (or body) as the faultless One, devoid of manifested effects, self-effulgent, all-pervading, He (it is who) controls (the Jiva), like a spider controlling the king of bees. Just as spiders by means of one thread project and withdraw the web, so also the Prana, (who) retires drawing back his creation. Prana belongs to the Nadis or subtle nerve-chords as their Devata or indwelling deity. One in dreamless sleep goes through that state to one’s own Abode, like a falcon and the sky – just as a falcon goes (to its nest) borne on the sky. He states: — Just as this Devadatta (in dreamless sleep) runs not away even when struck with a stick, even so he does not also attach himself to good or evil consequences of the life’s ordained activities; just as a child enjoys itself (spontaneously) without motive or desiring fruit, even so this Devadatta (the subject of dreamless sleep) enjoys happiness in that state. He knows being the Light Supreme. Desiring Light he enjoys the Light. So also he returns by the same way to the dream-state, like a leech: just as a leech carries itself on to the other points in front – (first) fixing upon the next point. And that state which he does not give up for a next one is called the waking state. (He carries all these states within himself) just as a (Vedic) deity bears the eight sacrificial cups simultaneously. It is from Him that the source of the Vedas and the Devas hang like breasts. In this waking state particularly good and evil obtain for the shining being (i.e. man’s Self) as ordained. This being or Self is fully self-extended (into world-forms), he is the indwelling controller of things and beings, he is the Bird, the Crab, the Lotus, he is the Purusha, the Prana, the destroyer, the cause and the effect, the Brahman and the Atman, he is the Devata making everything known. Whoever knows all this attains to the transcendent Brahman, the underlying support, the subjective principle.

3. Now this Purusha has four seats, the navel, the heart, the throat, and the head. In these shines forth the Brahman with four aspects: the state of wakefulness, of dream, of dreamless sleep, and the fourth or transcendental state. In the wakeful state, He is Brahma; in the dreaming state, He is Vishnu; in dreamless sleep He is Rudra; and the fourth state is the Supreme Indestructible One; and He again is the Sun, the Vishnu, the Ishwara, He is the Purusha, He the Prana, He the Jive or the animate being, He the Fire, The Ishwara, and the Resplendent; (yea) that Brahman which is transcendent shines within all these ! In Itself, It is devoid of mind, of ears, of hands and feet, of light. There neither are the worlds existing nor non-existing, neither are the Vedas or the Devas or the sacrifices existing nor non-existing, neither is the mother or father or daughter-in-law existing nor non-existing, neither is Chandala’s son or Pulkasa’s son existing nor non-existing, neither is the mendicant existing nor non-existing, so neither all the creatures or the ascetics; and thus only the One Highest Brahman shines there. Within the recess of the heart is that Akasa of consciousness – that with many openings, the aim of knowledge, within the space of the heart – in which all this (universe outside) evolves and moves about, in which all this is warped and woofed (as it were). (Who knows this), knows fully all creation. There the Devas, the Rishis, the Pitris have no control, for being fully awakened, one becomes the knower of all truth.

4. In the heart the Devas live, in the heart the Pranas are installed, in the heart exist the supreme Prana and Light as also the immanent Cause with threefold constituents and the Mahat principle.

5. It exists within this heart, that is, in the consciousness. “Put on the sacrificial thread which is supremely sacred, which became manifest of yore with Prajapati (the first created Being) Himself, which embodies longevity, eminence and purity, and may it be strength and puissance to you !”

6. The enlightened one should discard the external thread putting it off with the sacred tuft of hair on the head; the Supreme Brahman as the all-pervading one is the thread, and he should put this on.

7. The Sutra (or thread) is so called because of its having pierced through and started (the process of becoming). This Sutra verily constitutes the Supreme State. By whom this Sutra is known, he is the Vipra (sage), he has reached beyond the Vedas.

8. By It all this (universe) is transfixed, as a collection of gems is stringed together on a thread. The Yogi who is the knower of all Yogas and the seer of truth should put on this thread.

9. Established in the state of highest Yoga, the wise one should put off the external thread. One who is really self-conscious must put on the thread constituted by awareness of Brahman.

10. On account of wearing this Sutra or thread, they can neither become contaminated nor unclean, those (namely) who have this thread existing within them – those, with this sacrificial thread of knowledge.

11. They, among men, (really) know the Sutra, they (really) wear the sacrificial thread (on themselves), who are devoted to Jnana (the highest knowledge), who have this Jnana for their sacred hair-tuft, this Jnana for their sacred thread.

12. For them Jnana is the greatest purifier – Jnana, that is the best as such. Those who have this Jnana for their tufted hair are as non-different from it as is fire from its flame. This wise one is (really) said to be a Shikhi (or wearer of the tufted hair), while others are mere growers of hair (on the head).

13. But those belonging to the three castes (Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas) who have the right of performing Vedic works have to put on this (i.e. the common) sacred thread, as surely this thread is ordained to be part of such works.

14. One who has the Jnana for his tufted hair, and the same for his sacred thread, has everything about him characterised by Brahmanahood – so know the knowers of the Vedas !

15. This sacred thread (of Yajna, i.e. of the all-pervading Reality) is, again, the purification (itself) and that which is the end-all (of Vedic works); and the wearer of this thread is the wise one – is Yajna himself as well as the knower of Yajna.

16. The One Lord (self-effulgent) in all beings remaining hidden, all-pervading and the Self of all beings, controlling and watching over all works (good or bad), living in all creatures and the Witness (i.e. neither the doer of any acts nor the enjoyer), the Supreme Intelligence, the One without a second, having no attributes.

17. The one Intelligent (active) Being among the many inactive, He who makes the many from what is one – the wise men who find out this Self, theirs is the eternal peace, not of others.

18. Having made oneself the Arani, and the Pranava the upper Arani and rubbing them together through the practice of meditation, see the Lord in His hidden reality.

19. As in the oil in the sesamum seed, the butter in the curd, water in the flowing waves, and fire in the Shami wood, so is the Atman in one’s self to be discovered by one who searches for It through truth and austere practice.

20. As the spider weaves out the web and again withdraws it, so the Jiva comes out to and goes back again to the wakeful and dreaming states respectively.

21. The heart (i.e. the inner chamber of heart) resembles the calyx of a lotus, full of cavities and also with its face turned downwards. Know that to be the great habitat of the whole universe.

22. Know the wakeful state to have for its centre the eyes; the dreaming state should be assigned to the throat; the state of dreamless sleep is in the heart; and the transcendental state is in the crown of the head.

23. From the fact of an individual holding his self by means of Prajna or spiritual understanding in the Supreme Self, we have what is called Sandhya and Dhyana, as also the worshipping associated with Sandhya.

24. The Sandhya by meditation is devoid of any offering of liquids and so also of any exertion of body and speech; it is the unifying principle for all creatures, and this is really the Sandhya for Ekadandis.

26. From which without reaching It, the speech falls back with the mind, that is the transcendental Bliss of this embodied being, knowing which the wise one is released (from all bondage).

26. (And this Bliss is verily) the Self which pervades the whole universe, as the butter diffused within the milk.

This is the Brahmopanishad, or the supreme wisdom of Brahman, in the form of a unity of the Atman of all, founded on the spiritual discipline (Tapas) which is (nothing but) the Vidya or science of the Atman.

Advaita Vedanta in Maha Upanishad

(cited by rAmAnuja)

V-44-49. The visible cosmos of un-moving and moving things melts away like dream in a (dreamless) sleep. The wise people have attributed, for empirical purposes, names for the supreme Being, such as, Rita Atma, Para Brahma, Truth etc. Just as armlets etc., are only words and meanings, not different from gold, so also is the magical illusion of the cosmos extended by the supreme being.

The perceived being inside the visible world is called bondage, in the absence (dissolution) of the visible, he is realized. What is called the visible is the projection like, ‘The universe is you, and I’. The illusion of the world is spread only by the mind – as long as it happens, this is no liberation.

Advaita Vedanta in MahAnArAyaNa Upanishad

Referred By Shri Adi Shankaracharya in his Brahmasutra Bhasya

I-2: That in which all this universe exists together and into which it dissolves. That in which all the gods remain enjoying their respective powers – That certainly is whatever that has been in the past and whatever indeed is to come in the future. This cause of
the universe, Prajapati, is supported by His own imperishable nature described as absolute ether.

I-3: He by whom the space between heaven and earth as well as the heaven and the earth are enveloped. He by whom the sun burns with heat and gives light, and He whom the sages bind in the ether of their hearts (with the string of meditation), in whom – The Imperishable One – all creatures abide.

I-4-5: From whom the creatrix of the world, Prakriti, was born, who created in the world creatures out of elements such as water, who entered beings consisting of herbs, quadrupeds and men as the inner controller, who is greater than the greatest, who is one without a second, who is imperishable, who is of unlimited forms, who is the universe, who is ancient, who remains beyond darkness or Prakriti and who is higher than the highest – nothing else exists other than, or subtler than, Him.

I-6: Sages declare: That alone is right and That alone is true: That alone is the venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise. Acts of worship and social utility also are that Reality. That alone being the navel of the universe, sustains manifoldly the universe which arose in the past and which springs to existence at present.

I-7: That alone is Fire: That is Air; That is Sun; That verily is Moon; That alone is shining Stars and Ambrosia. That is Food; That is Water and He is the Lord of creatures.

I-8-9: All nimesas, kalas, muhurtas, kasthas, days, half-months, months, and seasons, were born from the self-luminous Person. The year also was born from Him. He milked water and also these two, the firmament and the heaven.

I-10: No person ever grasped by his understanding the upward limit of this Paramatman, nor His limit across, nor His middle portion. His name is ‘great glory’ for no one limits His nature by definition.

I-11: His form is not to be beheld; none whosoever beholds Him with the eye. Those who meditate on Him with their minds undistracted and fixed in the heart know Him; they become immortal.

Advaita Vedanta in JabAla Upanishad

Referred By Shri Adi Shankaracharya in his Brahmasutra Bhasya

I-1. Brihaspati (the preceptor of the gods) asked (the sage) Yajnavalkya: (Which is) the Kurukshetra, (the famous holy place that destroys sins and protects the good, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings ? (Yajnavalkya replied): Avimukta is the Kurukshetra, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices to deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings (i.e. the middle of the eye-brows). Hence wherever one goes one shall think thus: This is the Kurukshetra, the place where the gods perform sacrifices to the deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings. This is the spot where, when the vital airs depart from the living person, Rudra imparts the mantra (Taraka Brahman) to him by which, becoming immortal, he attains liberation (final beatitude). Hence one shall resort to the Avimukta; shall not desert the Avimukta. (Brihaspati approved of the statement saying): ‘So it is, Yajnavalkya’, verily it is so, O, revered one ! ‘It is so Yajnavalkya’.

II-1. Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How am I to realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest ?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied: That Avimukta (Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite and unmanifest, is established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara, possessed of attributes)’.

I-2. ‘Which is that (place) where Avimukta is established ?’ ‘He is established in between varana and nasi’. ‘What is (meant by) varana and what (by) nasi ?’ ‘The varana is so called as it wards off all the faults committed by the (ten) organs (of perception and action). The nasi is so named as it destroys all sins committed by the (ten) organs. (The place between the varana and the nasi is the meeting place of the upper part of the nose and the centre of the eye brows). ‘Which is the seat of that (Avimukta) ?’ ‘That, which is the (well known) juncture of the eye brows and the nose, is the juncture of heaven (in the form of the crown of the head) and this world (in the form at the end of the chin). The knowers of the Veda worship indeed this juncture (Samadhi) as Sandhya (in their daily worship). That Avimukta is to be worshipped. He who knows this thus (the true nature of the Avimukta), imparts the wisdom of the Avimukta (that the individual Self is no other than the attributeless Brahman, to his disciples).

IV-4. ... The mantra of liberation (namely ‘Om’) is (the essence of) the three Vedas; this he shall realize. It is Brahman and It is to be worshipped. Indeed, so it is, O revered Yajnavalkya (said Janaka).

VI-2. Discarding all these, namely the threefold staff (of bamboo), the water pot, the sling (to carry personal effects), the (alms-)bowl, the cloth for purifying water (tied to the staff), tuft of hair and sacred thread in water (i.e. a reservoir) by reciting ‘Bhuh Svaha’, the Paramahamsa shall seek the Atman.

VI-3. Possessing a form as one just born (i.e. unclad), unaffected by the pairs (of opposites, such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain), accepting nothing (except bare sustenance), well established in the path of the truth of Brahman, of pure mind, receiving alms into the mouth (literally into the vessel of the belly) at the prescribed hour in order to sustain life, becoming equanimous at gain or loss (of alms), sheltering himself, without an abode (of his own), in an unoccupied house, a temple, a clump of (tall) grass (or a heap of straw), an anthill, the shade of a tree, a potter’s hut, a cottage where sacred fire is kept, sandy bank of a river, a mountain thicket or cavity, a hollow in a tree, the vicinity of a water fall or a piece of clean ground; making no efforts (in any kind of gainful activity), free from ‘mineness’ (i.e. a sense of possessiveness), ever meditating on Brahman, devoted to the Self, ever intent on eradication of the good and bad karman, (the sage) finally gives up his body in the state of renunciation – (such a sage) is indeed a Paramahamsa. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.

Advaita Vedanta in Mudgala Upanishad

(cited by rAmAnuja)


The single God becoming many; unborn, is born as many. The Adhvaryus worship him as Agni. This as Yajus unites everything. The Samavedins worship as Saman. All is established in him. The serpents meditate on his as poison. The knowers of snake-lore as snake, gods as energy, men as wealth, Demons as Magic, the manes as sustenance. The knowers of the superhuman as superhuman. Gandharvas as beauty, Apsarases as perfume. He becomes whatever he is worshipped as; so, one should think ‘I am the supreme being’ and will become that (who knows this).


Beyond the threefold misery, free from layers devoid of the six waves, other than the five sheaths, unaffected by the six transformations is the Brahman. The three miseries are Adhyatmika (body disease), Adhibhautika (robbers, wild animals etc.,) and Adhidaivika (rains etc.,). They relate to agents, action and effect; knower, knowledge and the known; experiencer, experience and the experienced. The six layers are skin, flesh, blood, bones, tendons and morrow. The six enemies are lust etc. The five sheaths are those of food, vital airs, mind cognition and bliss. The six transformations are: being, birth, growth, change, decline and destruction. The six waves are hunger, thirst, sorrow, delusion, old age and death. The six delusions are about family, lineage, class, caste, stations (ashrama) and forms. Through contact with the supreme spirit becomes the Jiva – he is none other.

Advaita Vedanta in Aruni (Aruneyi) Upanishad

(Commentary by Bhaskararaya, Commentary by Lakshmidhara (Laxmidhara), dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)

3. Verily I am Brahman, the Sutra; the Sutra is Brahman for It originates (the cosmos); I myself am the sutra because I am a man of realisation – the wise one who has realised this should give up his triple holy thread. “I have renounced, I have renounced, I have renounced” – uttering this thrice he should declare – “From me there is no fear (in word, thought, or deed) to any being, for from me everything has proceeded”. Uttering the Mantra – “That art my friend, so protect me (from cows, serpents, etc.), thou art strength and my friend, in all seen and unseen danger thou art the Thunder of the Lord of the Universe”, etc., he should hold up high the bamboo staff and put on the loin-cloth. He should take food as if it were medicine, aye, as if it were medicine. Carefully guard (oh, ye all who are concerned) your chastity (in thought, word and deed), non-injury, non-acceptance of (superfluous) gifts, non-thieving and truthfulness – guard them by all means, aye, do guard !

Advaita Vedanta in Atma Upanishad

(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)

I-4. Next the supreme Self, the imperishable, He is to meditated on with (the help of) the Yogic steps, breath control, withdrawal (of sense organs), fixation (of mind), contemplation and concentration, He is to be inferred by the thinkers on the Self as like unto the seed of the Banyan tree or a grain of millet or a hundredth part of a split hair. (Thus) is He won and not known. He is not born, does not die, does not dry, is not wetted, not burnt, does not tremble, is not split, does not sweat. He is beyond the gunas, is spectator, is pure, partless, alone, subtle, owning naught, blemishless, immutable, devoid of sound, touch, colour, taste, smell, is indubitable, non-grasping, omnipresent. He is unthinkable and invisible. He purifies the impure, the unhallowed. He acts not. He is not subject to empirical existence.

II-1. The good named the Atman is pure, one and non-dual always, in the form of Brahman. Brahman alone shines forth.

II-2. Even as the world with its distinctions like affirmation, negation, etc., Brahman alone shines forth.

II-3. With distinctions like teacher and disciples (also), Brahman alone appears. From the point of view of truth, pure Brahman alone is.

II-4. Neither knowledge nor ignorance, neither the world nor aught else (is there).

What sets empirical life afoot is the appearance of the world as real.

II-5(a). What winds up empirical life is (its) appearance as unreal.

II-5(b)-6. What discipline is required to know, ‘this is a pot’, except the adequacy of the means of right knowledge ? Once it is given, the knowledge of the object (supervenes). The ever present Self shines when the means of Its cognition (is present).

II-7. Neither place nor time nor purity is required. The knowledge ‘I am Devadatta’ depends on nothing else.

II-8. Similarly, the knowledge ‘I am Brahman’ of the Knower of Brahman (is independent). Just as the whole world by the sun, by the splendour of the Knowledge of Brahman is everything illumined.

II-9-10(a). What can illumine the non-existent, and illusory, non-Self ? That which endows the Vedas, Shastras, Puranas and all other beings with import – that Knower what will illumine ?

II-10(b)-11. The child ignores hunger and bodily pain and plays with things. In the same way, the happy Brahman-Knower delights (in himself) without the sense of ‘mine’ and ‘I’. Thus the silent sage, alive and alone, the embodiment of desirelessness, treats the objects of desire.

II-12. Existing as the Self of all, he is ever content abiding in his Self. Free from all wealth, he rejoices always: though companionless, he is mighty.

II-13. Though not eating, he is ever content, peerless he looks on all alike: though acting, he does nothing: though partaking of fruit, yet, he is no experiencer thereof.

II-14-17. Living in a body, he is still disembodied; though determinate, he is omnipresent; never is this Brahman-Knower, disembodied and ever existent, affected by the pleasant and the unpleasant or by the good and the evil. Because it appears to be encompassed by Rahu (the darkness), the unencompassed sun is said to be encompassed by deluded men, not knowing the truth. Similarly, deluded folk behold the best of Brahman-Knowers, liberated from the bondage of body, etc., as though he is embodied, since he appears to have a body. The body of the liberated one remains like the shed Slough of the snake.

II-18. Moved a little, hither and thither, by the vital breath, (that body) is borne like a piece of timber, up and down, by the flood waters.

II-19-20. By fate is the body borne into contexts of experiences at appropriate times. (On the contrary) he who, giving up all migrations, both knowledge and unknowable, stays as the pure unqualified Self, is himself the manifest Shiva. He is the best of all Brahman-Knowers. In life itself the foremost Brahman-Knower is the ever free, he has accomplished his End.

II-21. All adjuncts having perished, being Brahman he is assimilated to the non-dual Brahman, like a man who, with (appropriate) apparels, is an actor and without them (resumes his natural state),

II-22(a). In the same way the best of Brahman-Knowers is always Brahman alone and none else.

II-22(b)-23. Just as space becomes space itself when the (enclosing) pot perishes, so, when particular cognitions are dissolved, the Brahman-Knower himself becomes nothing but Brahman, as milk poured into milk, oil into oil, and water into water become (milk, oil and water).

II-24(a). Just as, combined, they become one, so does the Atman-knowing sage in the Atman.

II-24(b). Thus disembodied liberation is the infinite status of Being.

II-25. Having won the status of Brahman, no longer is the Yogin reborn, for his ignorance-born bodies have all been consumed by the experimental knowledge of Being as the Self.

II-26-27(a). Because that Yogin has become Brahman, how can Brahman be reborn ? Bondage and liberation, set up by Maya, are not real in themselves in relation to the Self, just as the appearance and disappearance of the snake are not in relation to the stirless rope.

II-27(b). Bondage and liberation may be described as real and unreal and as due to the nescience (concealment of truth).

II-28-29. Brahman suffers from no concealment whatsoever. It is uncovered, there being nothing other than It (to cover It). The ideas, ‘it is’ and ‘it is not’, as regards Reality, are only ideas in the intellect. They do not pertain to the eternal Reality. So bondage and liberation are set up by Maya and do not pertain to the Self.

II-30. In the supreme Truth as in the sky, impartite, inactive, quiescent, flawless, unstained and non-dual where is room for (mental) construction ?

II-31. Neither suppression nor generation, neither the bond nor the striving: neither the liberty seeking nor the liberated – this is the metaphysical truth.

Advaita Vedanta in Sarvasara (Sarva-sara) Upanishad

(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)

1. Om. What is Bandha (bondage of the Soul) ? What is Moksha (liberation) ? What is Avidya (nescience) ? What is Vidya (knowledge) ? What are the states of Jagrat (waking), Svapna (dreaming) , Sushupti (Dreamless sleep), and the fourth, Turiya (Absolute) ? What are the Annamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya, Vijnanamaya and Anandamaya Koshas (vestures or sheaths of the soul) ? What is the Karta (agent), what the Jiva (individual self), the Kshetrajna (knower of the body), the Sakshi (Witness), the Kutastha, the Antaryamin (Internal Ruler) ? What is the Pratyagatman (Inner Self), what the Paramatman (Supreme Self), the Atman, and also Maya ? — the master of Self looks upon the body and such like things other than the Self as Itself: this egoism is the bondage of the soul. The cessation of that (egoism) is Moksha, liberation. That which causes that egoism is Avidya, nescience. That by which this egoism is completely turned back is Vidya, knowledge. When the self, by means of its four and ten organs of sense beginning with the mind and benignly influenced by the sun and the rest which appear outside, perceives gross objects such as sound etc., then it is the Atman’s Jagrat (wakeful) state. When, even in the absence of sound etc., (the self) not divested of desire for them, experiences, by means of the four organs, sound and the rest in the form of desires – then it is the Atman’s state of Svapna (dream). When the four and ten organs cease from activity, and there is the absence of differentiated knowledge, then is the Atman’s state of Sushupti (dreamless sleep).

2. When the essence of consciousness which manifests itself as the three states, is a witness of the states, (but is) itself devoid of states, positive or negative, and remains in the state of non-separation and oneness, then it is spoken of as the Turiya, the fourth. The aggregate of the six sheaths, which are the products of food, is called the Annamaya-kosha, alimentary sheath. When the fourteen kinds of Vayus beginning with the Prana, are in the alimentary sheath, then it is spoken of as the Pranamaya-kosha, vesture of the vital airs. When the Atman united with these two sheaths performs, by means of the four organs beginning with the mind, the functions of desire, etc., which have for their objects sound and the rest, then it (this state) is called the Manomaya-kosha, mental sheath. When the soul shines being united with these three sheaths, and cognisant of the differences and non-differences thereof then it is called the Vijnanamaya-kosha, sheath of intelligence. When these four sheaths remain in their own cause which is Knowledge (Brahman), in the same way as the latent Banyan tree remains in the Banyan seed, then it is spoken of as the Anandamaya-kosha, causal frame of the Soul. When it dwells in the body, as the seat of the idea of pleasure and pain, then it is the Karta, agent. The idea of pleasure is that which pertains to wished-for objects, and the idea of pain is that which pertains to undesirable objects. Sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell are the causes of pleasure and pain. When the soul, conforming itself to good and bad actions, has made a link of the present body (with its past body), and is seen to be effecting a union, a connection as it were, with the body not yet received, then it is called the Jiva, individual soul, on account of its being limited by Upadhis. The five groups are those beginning with the mind, those beginning with the Prana, those beginning with the Sattva, those beginning with the will, and those beginning with merit. The ego possessing the attributes of these five groups, does not die out without the knowledge of the ever-attained Self. That which, owing to its proximity to the Self, appears as imperishable and is attributed to Atman, is called the Linga-sharira (subtle body), and the “heart’s knot”. The Consciousness which manifests itself therein is called the Kshetrajna, Knower of the Kshetra (body).

3. He who is the cogniser of the manifestation and disappearance of the knower, knowledge, and the knowable, but is himself devoid of such manifestation and disappearance, and is self-luminous, is called the Sakshi, Witness. When being perceived in an undifferentiated manner in the intelligence of all beings, from Brahma (the Creator) down to an ant, it resides in the intelligence of all beings, then it is called the Kutastha. When, standing as the means of realising the real nature of the Kutastha and others, which are differentiations by virtue of possessing limiting adjuncts, the Atman manifests itself as inter-woven in all bodies, like the thread through a string of jewels, then it is called the Antaryamin, Internal Ruler. When the Atman shines forth – absolutely free from all limiting adjuncts, brilliant, as a homogeneous mass of consciousness in its nature of pure Intelligence, independent – then, it is spoken of as the Entity of “Thou” (Tvam), and as the Pratyagatman, Inner-Self. (That which is) Satya (the Reality), Jnana (Knowledge), Ananta (the Infinite), Ananda (Bliss), is Brahman. The Reality is the indestructible; That which, when name, space, time, substance, and causation are destroyed, dies not, is the indestructible; and that is called Satya, the Reality. And Jnana – that essence of Intelligence which has no beginning and no end, spoken of as Jnana.

4. And Ananta, the Infinite, (remaining in the same manner) as (does) clay in modifications of clay, as gold in modifications of gold, as thread in fabrics of thread, the antecedent, all-pervading Consciousness, that is in all phenomena of creation beginning with the Unmanifested, is called the Infinite. And Ananda, Bliss – the essence of the consciousness of happiness, the ocean of measureless bliss, and the state of undifferentiated happiness is called Bliss. That, of which the above fourfold nature is an indication, and which is permanent in all space, time, substance, and causation, is called the Entity of “That” (Tat) Paramatman, Supreme Self, and Para-Brahman, or the Highest Brahman. Distinguished from the Entity of “Thou” (when it appears to be) possessed of attributes, as well as from the Entity of “That” (when it appears to be) possessed of attributes, that which is all-pervading like the sky, subtle, whole by itself, pure Existence, the Entity of “Art” (Asi). Self-luminous, is spoken of as the Atman; the Entity of “not-That”, also is spoken of as Atman. That which is beginningless, fruitful, open to both proof and disproof, neither real nor unreal, nor real-unreal – non-existent, when, because of the immutability of its own substratum, the cause of change is ascertained; — existent when it is not so ascertained – (thus that) which is undefinable, is called Maya.

5. I am neither the body nor the ten senses, Buddhi, Mind, Ego. Without Prana and mind, pure, I am always the witness, pure consciousness, surely. I am neither the doer nor the enjoyer, only a witness to Prakriti. By my presence body etc., function as alive, still, eternal, ever joy, pure. I am Brahman to be known from all Vedanta, yet unknowable like sky and air. I am neither form nor action, only Brahman.

6. I am not body; birth, death do not come to me. I am not Prana – have no hunger and thirst; I am not mind – have no grief or delusion. I am not the doer – have no bondage or release.

Advaita Vedanta in Paramhansa Upanishad

(dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)

1. “What is the path of the Paramahamsa Yogis, and what are their duties ?” – was the question Narada asked on approaching the Lord Brahma (the Creator). To him the Lord replied: The path of the Paramahamsas that you ask of is accessible with the greatest difficulty by people; they have not many exponents, and it is enough if there be one such. Verily, such a one rests in the ever-pure Brahman; he is verily the Brahman inculcated in the Vedas – this is what the knowers of Truth hold; he is the great one, for he rests his whole mind always in Me; and I, too, for that reason, reside in him. Having renounced his sons, friends, wife, and relations, etc., and having done away with the Shikha, the holy thread, the study of the Vedas, and all works, as well as this universe, he should use the Kaupina, the staff, and just enough clothes, etc., for the bare maintenance of his body, and for the good of all. And that is not final. If it is asked what this final is, it is as follows:

2. The Paramahamsa carries neither the staff, nor the hair-tuft, nor the holy thread nor any covering. He feels neither cold, nor heat, neither happiness nor misery, neither honour, nor contempt etc. It is meet that he should be beyond the reach of the six billows of this world-ocean. Having given up all thought of calumny, conceit, jealousy, ostentation, arrogance, attachment or antipathy to objects, joy and sorrow, lust, anger, covetousness, self-delusion, elation, envy, egoism, and the like, he regards his body as a corpse, as he has thoroughly destroyed the body-idea. Being eternally free from the cause of doubt, and of misconceived and false knowledge, realising the Eternal Brahman, he lives in that himself, with the consciousness “I myself am He, I am That which is ever calm, immutable, undivided, of the essence of knowledge-bliss, That alone is my real nature.” That (Jnana) alone is his Shikha. That (Jnana) alone is his holy thread. Through the knowledge of the unity of the Jivatman with the Paramatman, the distinction between them is wholly gone too. This (unification) is his Sandhya ceremony.

3. He who relinquishing all desires has his supreme rest in the One without a second, and who holds the staff of knowledge, is the true Ekadandi. He who carries a mere wooden staff, who takes to all sorts of sense-objects, and is devoid of Jnana, goes to horrible hells known as the Maharauravas. Knowing the distinction between these two, he becomes a Paramahamsa.

4. The quarters are his clothing, he prostrates himself before none, he offers no oblation to the Pitris (manes), blames none, praises none – the Sannyasin is ever of independent will. For him there is no invocation to God, no valedictory ceremony to him; no Mantra, no meditation, no worship; to him is neither the phenomenal world nor That which is unknowable; he sees neither duality nor does he perceive unity. He sees neither “I” nor ‘thou”, nor all this. The Sannyasin has no home. He should not accept anything made of gold or the like, he should not have a body of disciples, or accept wealth. If it be asked what harm there is in accepting them, (the reply is) yes, there is harm in doing so. Because if the Sannyasin looks at gold with longing, he makes himself a killer of Brahman; because if the Sannyasin touches gold with longing, he becomes degraded into a Chandala; because if he takes gold with longing, he makes himself a killer of the Atman. Therefore, the Sannyasin must neither look at, nor touch nor take gold, with longing. All desires of the mind cease to exist, (and consequently) he is not agitated by grief, and has no longing for happiness; renunciation of attachment to sense-pleasures comes, and he is everywhere unattached in good or evil, (consequently) he neither hates nor is elated. The outgoing tendency of all the sense-organs subsides in him who rests in the Atman alone. Realising “I am that Brahman who is the One Infinite Knowledge-Bliss” he reaches the end of his desires, verily he reaches the end of his desires.

Advaita Vedanta in Kaivalya Upanishad

(cited by Adi Sankara, vidyAraNya svAmI, dipikA by nArAyaNa tIrtha)

6 - “Brahman which is the source of all, pure, free from sorrow, beyond thoughts, unmanifested, many-formed (in association with thoughts), auspicious, tranquil, immortal, free from beginning middle and end, non-dual, all pervasive, formless and wonderful and which is consciousness and ananda.”

16. That which is the Supreme Brahman, the soul of all, the great support of the universe, subtler than the subtle, and eternal – that is thyself, and thou art That.

17. “That which manifests the phenomena, such as the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep, I am that Brahman” – realising thus one is liberated from all bonds.

18. What constitute the enjoyable, the enjoyer, and the enjoyment, in the three abodes – different from them all am I, the Witness, the Pure Consciousness, the Eternal Good.

19. In me alone is everything born, in me does everything rest, and in me is everything dissolved. I am that Brahman, the secondless.

20. I am minuter than the minute, I am likewise the greatest of all, I am the manifold universe. I am the Ancient One, the Purusha and the Ruler, I am the Effulgent One, and the All-good.

21. Without arms and legs am I, of unthinkable power; I see without eyes, and I hear without ears. I know all, and am different from all. None can know me. I am always the Intelligence.

Advaita Vedanta in AdhyAtma Upanishad

1. Superimposition is the thought, 'I am and mine are the body, the senses, etc., which are all other than the Self. Through devotion to Brahman, the wise man should repudiate it.

2. Knowing oneself to be the subject, the witness of intellect and its operations, reject the idea of the Self being other than the subject, identifying the 'I' with that (the subject).

3. Rejecting conformity with the world, the body, and the Shastras, remove superimposition on the Self.

4. The mind of the Yogin perishes as he stays without intermission in the Self alone, knowing, through reasoning, Shruti, and experience, that one is the Self of all beings.

5. Without granting for a moment even a toe-hold for sleep, gossip, verbal exchanges, etc., and self-forgetfulness, meditate on the Self in the self. 

6. Casting the body far aside, the offspring of parental exudations, as its status is no better than that of an outcast, and becoming Brahman, seek fulfillment.

7. Dissolve the self in the supreme Self as the pot-space is dissolved in infinite space; then, as the Infinite be silent for ever, O sage !

10. Knowing 'I am that Brahman' in which this world appearance (exists) like a city reflected in a mirror, find fulfillment, O sinless one !

19. All things from Brahma down to clumps of grass are nothing but unreal adjuncts. Distinct from the, see one's Self existing as the immutable plenum.

20. One's Self is Brahma, Vishnu, Indra and Shiva; this entire world is one's Self; other than this Self, there is nothing.

Advaita Vedanta in Atma Bodh Upanishad

(quoted by Adi Sankara in his viShNu sahasranama bhASya)

I-6-8. In the middle of the heart-lotus It (Brahman) exists with knowledge as the eye; the world, knowledge are established in Brahman. He, the seeker, departs from this world with this knowledge, getting all desires in the other world becomes immortal. Where there is always light and value, there the person attains immortality – Om Namah.

II-1-10. The Maya has gone away from me, I am the pure vision; my ego has gone down, so has the difference between world, god and soul. I am the inner-self, without positive and negative rules; I am the expansive Bliss; I am the witness, independent, exerting in my greatness; without old age and decay, opposing sides, pure knowledge, the ocean of liberation; I am subtle without any attributes. 

I am without three qualities, all worlds exists in my belly; the changeless consciousness, beyond reason and action, I have no parts, unborn, pure reality.
I am endless knowledge, auspicious, indivisible, faultless, reality unbounded. I am to be known by Agamas, attractive to all the worlds. I am pure joy; purity, sole, ever shining, beginningless; I have ascertained the highest Truth.

I know myself without a second, with discrimination. Even then Bondage and Liberation are experienced. The world has gone away that appears to be real like serpent and rope; only Brahman exists as the basis of the world; therefore the world does not exist; like sugar pervaded by the taste of the sugarcane, I am pervaded by Bliss. All the three worlds, from Brahma to the smallest worm are imagined in me.

In the ocean there are many things, from the bubble to the wave; but the ocean does not desire these – So also, I have no desire for things of the world; I am like a rich-man not desiring poverty. A wise person abandons poison favouring Amrita. The sun which makes the pot shine is not destroyed along with the pot; so also the spirit is not destroyed with the body.

I have no bondage nor liberation, no Shastra, no Guru. I have gone beyond Maya – let life go away or let the mind be attacked – I have no misery as I am filled with joy, I know myself; Ignorance has run away somewhere – I have no doership nor duty, kula and gotra. These belong to the gross body, not to me different from it. Hunger, thirst, blindness, etc., belong to the Linga-deha only. Dullness, desire etc., belong only to the Karana-deha.
Just as to an owl the sun is dark, so also for an ignorant person there is darkness in Brahman . When vision is blocked by clouds he thinks there is no sun. Just as Amrita, different from poison is not affected by its defects, I do not touch the defects of Inertia. Even a small lamp can remove big darkness; so even a little knowledge destroys big ignorance.

Just as there is no serpent in the rope at any time, there is no world in me.

Advaita Vedanta in SarasvatI hradaya Upanishad

(accepted by advaitins, referred by H.H. Sri Abhinava Vidyateertha Mahaswami)

68. A finite soul, the supreme God –

These notions are to Me imputed.

They are not real – who knows this,

In truth, is free – doubt is there none.

This is the secret wisdom.

Advaita Vedanta in Yog Tatva Upanishad

9. How did that which is the seat of Paramatman, is eternal and above the state of all existing things and is of the form of wisdom and without stains attain the state of Jiva ?

10. A bubble arose in it as in water and in this (bubble) arose Ahankara. To it arose a ball (of body) made of the five (elements) and bound by Dhatus.

11. Know that to be Jiva which is associated with happiness and misery and hence is the term Jiva applied to Paramatman which is pure.

12-13. That Jiva is considered to be the Kevala (alone) which is freed from the stains of passion, anger, fear, delusion, greed, pride, lust, birth, death, miserliness, swoon, giddiness, hunger, thirst, ambition, shame, fright, heart-burning, grief and gladness.

Advaita Vedanta in NirvANa Upanishad

53. When the reality of Brahman shines in the self there is the annihilation of the phenomenal world which is enveloped by the power of Shiva (Maya); similarly the burning of the existence or non-existence of the aggregate of the causal, subtle and gross bodies.

External Links

Verses and incidents from Chand­ogya Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Aitareya Upanishad
For more scriptural evidences, please refer:

scroll down to 'The Upanishads' , click on 'From the Upanishads' (279 pages, 537 k)

Also read interpreting upanishads for further details

Another link which has lots of verses from many upanishads is

You will need to scroll down until you see verses from Upanishads, starting from "Amritabindu Upanishad, verses 12-15:"



The more you dig into shastras, the more you will find the description and glories of both Saguna and Nirguna Brahman. At some places Ishwara is glorified, while attributeless Brahman is glorified at other places. After carefully studying shastras, i.e. shrutis (upanishads) and Smrutis (Gitas), one can come to only conclusion that God is both with form and formless and that Saguna and Nirguna Brahman are not different from each other. God with attributes represents Nirguna brahman just like national flag, a small piece of cloth represents entire country. An insult to National Flag is an insult to country. Just like by touching any one part of body, you touch whole person, so by having darshan of God Ishwara (Saguna Brahman), you are actually touching Nirguna Brahman.

Shastras teach us the unity of both, but we humans fight over trivial differences, which in reality are not present. Let us not waste more time in reading shastras to collect more proofs with an intention to wage a war. Let's read, understand, digest and apply them in day-2-day life and in meditation and attain moksha, the destination for which we have been given a rare human birth. Time is very short. Days are passing very fast. Yesterday will not return, time is will wait for anyone. So the future is in our hands. Lets make a proper use of invaluable time and dedicate our selves to the first and the foremost duty after getting human body - Self Realization. Let not this very purpose of getting birth in human body be defeated. It will be the defeat of our beloved Lord, who have decided and declared by giving us birth in human body that - You deserve to be one with me, You deserve Self Realization, You deserve to be free from cycle of births & deaths and attain Moksha. Not for our sake, but for the very sake of our beloved Bhagavan, let us selflessly, diligently, sincerely and regularly make attempts for our salvation with full faith and with total surrender, unconditional surrender is my humble prayer. May we all move beyond vaada-vivaada into the realm of truth is my humble prayer.

My koti-koti pranams and prostrations to Ishwara, Brahman, Param Gurus, to all disciples, devotees and seekers of truth.

A Devotee of devotee.



A request to respected readers

Earlier, I have always studied shastras for my personal progress. But recently, I took time to search to prove something or to refute something. Ultimately, I am the loser, as after years of practice (I started when I was 18, now I am 31), I felt that I am sinking and these thoughts eat up time in meditation, which is not a good sign. Had somebody attacked me, I would not have bothered or would have quickly come out of it the next day. But since it attacks the very philosophy that I practice with full devotion, it hurts. The last thoughts are the first thoughts in meditation. I do not want others to spend time in neutralizing their mind. So I have with evidence from Shastras, mainly from Gita, which is a saara (essence) of Upanishads.

My request is that please do not waste time in refuting or arguing. It will only increase ego. The winner of debate is only one EGO. After writing all these, now I am relieved and can meditate freely without disturbance.

If someone believes that Krishna is the greatest, then so be it, let him spend more and more time with him. Let us advaitins keep thinking on brahman. If you find inconsistencies in various puranas and contradicting views, please ignore them.

e.g. Purely for explanation:

Srimad Bhagavad has 22 / 24 avatars. It has Balrama but not Laxman. It has buddha, who was not a vaishnav or maybe even not a hindu. Just ignore it. It is not needed for personal spiritual growth.

All paths are created by God to cover men of different prakruti. All are right in their place. For personal progress, there is no need to destroy, delete, or walk over other lines to make you line superior. All you have to do is, without touching the first line, make your line bigger than first one.

A request to Indians

Please read in your mother tongue or in indian languages. Many times english translations, specially the ones which are available on net sucks. Some take Unreal as asatya, some as mithyaa

satya = true, present at all times
asatya = false, not present at all times (like horn of rabbit)
mithya = illusion, temporary, one which is not true, but is experienced like (sea-shell as silver), water in desert, dream world. It can also be defined as one which is not present everywhere at all times. e.g. Waking state is true and real only in waking state and not when you are in sleep and deep sleep.

I do not know where to fit 'unreal'. Probably, my english is very weak :)

In Bhaja Govindam, there is a word mudha (मुढ) used

Mudha is often translated as fool, some translate as you fool, you rascal.

The actual meaning of Mudha is the one whose consciousness is strongly embedded in physical body.

another word is ananya (अनन्य), which appears in Gita.
अनन्य = अ + अन्य 
ananya = a + anya 

anya means different

So ananya means not different

Words like 'Supreme personality of Godhead' and 'past times of Krishna' do not do justice to the words Bhagavan and Lila, which have indepth meaning. Bhagavan (Ishwara) is endowed with 6 upadhis. 

I am not an authority on spirituality, so my views are personal views. I do not intend to hurt any faith or belief system. Please accept my apologies if I unintentionally did it. Everything was written from right spirituality with positive and calm mind.

A Humble Request: Adopt Nahi Ninda Nyaya

Paramacharya asks us to adopt Nani Ninda Nyaya

The purpose of exalting a particular deity over the another is not to depreciate the latter. The underlying idea is that a person who worships his chosen god has unflinching faith in him and becomes totally devoted to him. Such exclusive devotion is called "ananyabhakti". The idea here, however, is not to regard other devatas as inferior to one's own chosen deity- an example of "nahi ninda nyaya".

Tarka Sastra (science of dialectics, logic and reasoning) proposes “nahi ninda nyay” to support one’s theory. Glorify your view, but that doesn’t mean that the other view is flawed.

With this nyaya, almost all contradictions can be neutralized, even Ramanujas also at times adopt this nyaya

Some quotes from Ramanujas, though the person representing may not be authentic, it reflects the peace loving nature adn wish to neutralize contradictions and doubts.

Srimath Ramayanam is considered most authentic by our Poorvacharyas and only out of 'Nahi Ninda Nyaya' Srimath Ramayana was compared against Trivaimozhi in Acharya Hrudayam by Sri Azagiya Perumal Nayanar. Further, Sri Pillai Lokacharya consisred "Srimad Ramayana" and Mahabharatha" as more authentic than Puranas and between the 2,

Srimad Ramayana was considered even more authentic. You mentioned about Simad Ramayana and Sri Ramanuja. In Ramanuja Noortrandhadi, It is mentioned that Sri Ramanuja took to his heart the inner meanings of Srimath Ramayana.(Padi konda keerthi, Ramayanam ennum...)

Lokacharya Panchasat Shloka 33

tvayi vilasati ra~Nge sheShatalpena pumsA jagati guruvara shrIdR^iShTipUrAbhiShikte | kathamiva bhuvanArya tvAm vinAnyam bhajante sati dinakarabimbe ke pradIpam vahanti ||


bhuvanArya guruvara 		- O Lokacharya who is best amongst acharyas.
tvayi vilasati 			- When you are shining
ra~Nge 				- in Srirangam,
shrIdR^iShTipUra abhiShikte 	- washed by the merciful flood from the eyes
sheShatalpena pumsA 		- of the Lord who rests on the bed of Adisesha,
tvAm vinA 			- leaving you
kathamiva (janA:) bhajante 	- how will (people) seek
anyam 				- another?
dinakarabimbe sati 		- When Sunlight is there
ke pradIpam vahanti 		- will anyone carry a lamp?

Vyakhyana Saram:

In this shloka, Desikan states that Pillai Lokacharyar is like a Sun compared to others. Again, this is not to put down other acharyas, but to praise Lokacharyar ("nahi nindA nyAya"). In our sampradhayam, our Azhvars and Acharyas have been called the Sun, because, just as the Sun removes the external darkness, they were born and removed the internal darkness. Azhvar is called "vakuLa bhUShaNa bhAskara"; Thirumangai Azhvar is called "loka divAkara"; Ramanuja is called "rAmAnuja divAkara:". Desikan says that with this Sun present, why seek anyone else?

Vedanta Desikan Thiruvadigale Sharanam
Pillai Lokacharyar Thiruvadigale Sharanam
Azhvar Emberumanar Jeeyar Thiruvadigale Sharanam


Sri Parasara Bhatta used to say that if one must seek refuge of our Lord, among the dasavathara,Varaha is the most perfect choice. Based on the "nahi ninda nyaya" (not denigrating others) he is reported to have said: Matsya avathara is sea bound so it cant extricate us from the sea of samsara. Koorma is itself pushed down into the sea by a mountain. Nrisimha is different above and below the neck so not to be resorted to. Vamana took over the three worlds by stratagem of showing tiny feet and then growing to gigantic proportions. Parasurama was rage personified. Rama(Bhattar's favourite in fact!) lost His wife for ten months. Balarama was too fond of drinking. Krishna, His wife Andal says, was always lying. We haven't seen Kalki yet. So Varaha, who without any shame(manam illa panri) took on the form of a boar and jumped into the dirty sludge and brought out Bhuma devi, is the one to be resorted to. Similarly He will extricate us from the "bheemabhavaarnavodare" the belly of the deep and dangerous ocean of existence.

It must be remembered that it was Varaha Perumal who gave the first guarantee that He would safely steer the prapanna to safety. Varaha charma sloka

Stiththe manasi suswasthe sharire sathiyo narah...

"Ye men if you realise and remember with all your humors in harmony, that I am the Cosmos and Unborn when you are "mens sana in corpore sana", then when death is iminent and you are like wood and stone, I will remember my bhakta, devotee, and take him to the highest abode, paramapada."
It was this very Varaha who taught the easiest way to attain Him to Bhudevi. She repeated it to us when She took birth as Periazhwar's daughter, "Thoozhomai vandhu toomalar thoovi thozhudu, vayinaal padi manthinaal chinthithu pozha piyaiyum pukuthurvan ninavaiyum thiyinil thoosaakum ". If we come sanctfied, offering pure flowers, pay obeisance, sing with our mouths and think in our minds, the past transgressions and those that still stand will disappear like cotton in a fire.

Sri Ambujavalli sametha Sri Bhoovarahaswamy Parabrahmane namo namah.

Dr.S.Sundar Rajan MS ortho
Trichy 22 Sep 2010.

Let us all live in peace and harmony adopting Nahi Ninda Nyaya

Hari OM